ƒ”ƒHƒ‹ƒtƒKƒ“ƒOEƒ~ƒqƒFƒ‹u‚P‚U`‚P‚W˘‹I‚Ěƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ö“`‚í‚Á‚˝“ú–{‚ĚčI‹„vw‘S“ú–{čI‹„Šw‰ďŽGŽx¤‘ć61ŠŞ‘ć2†¤150-163i42-55j•ĹB
Wolfgang Michel: Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion in 16-18th Century Europe. Journal of the Japan Society of Acupuncture and Moxibustion (JJSAM), Vol. 61 (2011), No. 2, pp. 150-163 (42-44).
Due to encoding problems some features have been changed. A pdf-file of the published version is available at Kyushu University Institutional Repository (QIR).

 

ƒ”ƒHƒ‹ƒtƒKƒ“ƒOEƒ~ƒqƒFƒ‹

‚P‚U`‚P‚W˘‹I‚Ěƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ö“`‚í‚Á‚˝“ú–{‚ĚčI‹„


‹ß˘“ŒźŒđ—Ź‚É‚¨‚Ż‚éˆăŠw

“ŒźŒđ—ŹŽj‚É‚¨‚Ż‚éˆăŠw‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚錤‹†‚̑唟‚́AŽĺ‚Ɂuź—mˆăŠwv‚Ě“Œ‘Q‚É’…–Ú‚ľ‚˝‚ŕ‚̂ŁAuź—mˆăŠwv‚É—ň‚炸“ŕ—e–L•x‚ȁu“Œ—mˆăŠwv‚̐ź‘QŽj‚͏\•Ş‚ɉ𖞂ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚é‚Ć‚ÍŒž‚˘“BŽjŽŔ‚đ‘‡“I‚Š‚łŠm‚É”˝‰f‚ľ‚˝‘S‘Ě‘œ‚Ě”cˆŹ‚Ş‹‚ß‚ç‚ę‚é‚ŞAŽj—ż‚đ‰đŽß‚ˇ‚éŰ‚ɂ͐ć“üŠĎ‚É‚Ć‚ç‚í‚ę‚Č‚˘Td‚ł‚Ş•K—v‚Ĺ‚ ‚éBu“Œ—mˆăŠwvuź—mˆăŠwv‚Ć‚˘‚¤ŒÄĚ‚́AŠeX‚̍‘‚â’nˆć‚Ě“ÁŽęŤ‹y‚Ń‚ť‚Ě—đŽj“I•Ď‘J‚đl—ś‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚Č‚˘B“Œź—ź—m‚ɂ͐”X‚ĚŠw”h‚â—Ź”h‚Ş‘śÝ‚ľA‚Ć‚Ť‚É‚ÍŒƒ‚ľ‚˘‘ˆ‚˘‚đŒJ‚čL‚°A‚Ü‚˝V‹Œ‚Ě—lX‚Č—v‘f‚đ‘g‚ݍ‡‚í‚š‚˝Ü’“I‚ČƒAƒvƒ[ƒ`‚ŕŒŠ‚ç‚ę‚é‚ȂǁA‚ť‚Ě‹¤’ʐŤ‚Ć‹ĎˆęŤ‚Í‚Š‚Č‚č’ŠŰ“I‚ČƒŒƒxƒ‹‚É‚ľ‚Š‘śÝ‚ľ‚Č‚˘B‚Ü‚˝A‹ł‹`‚Ć‚ľ‚Ä“`Žó‚ł‚ę‚˝uˆăŠwv‚ĆŽŔŰ‚ɍs‚í‚ę‚˝uˆă—Áv‚Í•K‚¸‚ľ‚ŕˆę’v‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚í‚Ż‚Ĺ‚Í‚Č‚˘B—á‚Ś‚΁A‚P‚W‚S‚O”N‘ă‚ɃG[ƒeƒ‹–ƒŒ‚Ş”­–ž‚ł‚ę‚é‚܂ŁAƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚ĚŠO‰Čˆă‚́A‹ ƒ”ƒFƒTƒŠƒEƒX‚Ş‚P‚U˘‹I‚É”­•\‚ľ‚˝Œ¤‹†Ź‰Ę‚Ě‚Ů‚Ć‚ń‚Ç‚đŠˆ‚Š‚š‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝‚ľA—–•űŒn‚Ć‚ł‚ę‚é“ú–{‚Ěˆă‰Ć‚Ě‘˝‚­‚ÉčIp—p‚̐j‚â’†‘‚̐ś–ňAˆă‘‚Č‚Ç‚ŞŽc‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚éB‘•¨‚ĚŽó—e‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚錤‹†‚͏d—v‚ž‚ށAŽĄ—Ă‚ĚŽŔ‘Ԃ́AŽĄ—Ă˜^‚â“š‹ďAˆă–ň•i‚đŠî‚ÉŠm”F‚ľ‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘B

“ŒźˆăŠwŒđ—Ź‚Ě’S‚˘Žč‚Ě‚Ů‚Ć‚ń‚ǂ́AˆăŽtA–ňÜŽt‚Č‚Ç‚Ěˆă—ĂŠÖŒWŽŇ‚ž‚Á‚˝‚ށA‚ť‚Ě•‘‘ä‚Ć‚Č‚Á‚˝‚Ě‚Í“ŒƒAƒWƒA‚Ě‚Ý‚Ĺ‚ ‚Á‚˝B‚ą‚́u•s‹Ďtv‚ÍŠĎŽ@‚âŠm”F‚Ě•ű–@A“ŕ—e‚Ě•‚Č‚Ç‚É‘Š“–‚ȉe‹ż‚đ‹y‚ľ‚˝‚ĆŽv‚í‚ę‚éB‚Ü‚˝A‹ß‘ă‚É‚ ‚č‚Ş‚ż‚Č“Œź—źˆăŠw‚̑Η§ŠÖŒW‚́A‚P‚W˘‹I‚Ü‚Ĺ‚ĚŒđ—Ź‚É‚¨‚˘‚Ä‚ÍŒŠ‚ç‚ę‚Č‚˘B‘ŠŽč‚ĚˆăŠw‚Ćˆăp‚ɑ΂ˇ‚é•]‰ż‚́AŽŠ‘‚Ěó‹ľ‚É‚ć‚č‘ĺ‚Ť‚­ś‰E‚ł‚ęAŽž‘ă‚É‚ć‚čŠÖS‚̏d“_‚ŕ•Ď‚í‚Á‚˝Bƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ěˆăp‚ć‚č“ú–{‚ĚčI‹„‚đ—Dć‚ľ‚˝Ž–—á‚ł‚Ś‚ ‚Á‚˝[1]B

“`’B‚ĚŒo˜H‚ɂ‚˘‚ẮAŽž‚É‚â‚â•ĄŽG‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB‚P‚U‚T‚O”N‘ă‚ɐ”–ź‚ĚƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ďŽm‚ލL“Œ‚ō쐬‚ľ‚˝’†ˆă‘‚Ěƒ‰ƒeƒ“Œę–ó‚́Aƒoƒ^ƒrƒAÝZ‚ĚƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_“ŒƒCƒ“ƒh‰ďŽĐ‚̏¤lƒNƒ‰ƒCƒ„[‚ÉŽč“n‚ł‚ęAƒhƒCƒc‚ĹŠ§s‚ł‚ę‚é‚ą‚Ć‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝Bˆę•űAo“‡¤ŠŮ’ˇƒeƒBƒcƒBƒ“ƒO‚ރoƒ^ƒrƒA‚ÖŽ‚ż‹A‚Á‚˝–Ř‘ş‘ž’‡Œł’ĺ’˜wčI‹„‹É”鏴x‚ĚƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œę–ó‚́A‚ť‚Ě”ź˘‹IŒăƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒX‚Ěˆă‘‚ÉŽć‚č“ü‚ę‚ç‚ę‚˝B

‚P‚W˘‹IŒă”ź‚Š‚çA‹t—A“ü‚̂悤‚ČŒťŰ‚ŕ‹N‚ą‚Á‚˝Bă‹L‚́wčI‹„‹É”鏴x‚ɂ́AŽŔ‚͐ź—m‚Ěˆă–ň•i‚âŕbŒŒ—Ă–@‚ŞŠÜ‚Ü‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚é‚ŞA“–Žž‚Ěƒˆ[ƒƒbƒpl‚Í‚ť‚ę‚É‘S‚­‹C‚Ă‚Š‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝B“ú–{‚Ě“`“ˆăŠw‚đĐ‰î‚ľ‚˝ƒV[ƒ{ƒ‹ƒg‚́Aź—m‰đ–UŠw‚ĆčI‹„‚Ć‚Ě—Z‡‚đ–ÚŽw‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝‰œˆăŽtÎâ@“N‚́u’m—vˆęŒžv‚Š‚çˆř—p‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚éB

‚Ć‚ŕ‚ÉŠżŽš‚đŽg—p‚ľA‘˝‚­‚̏‘•¨‚Ć•¨‚âKŠľ‚đ‹¤—L‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚é“ú–{‚Ć’†‘‚đ‹ć•Ę‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ƃ́A‹ß˘ƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚É‚Ć‚Á‚Ä—eˆŐ‚Ĺ‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝B‹Œ–ńš‘‚́u‘n˘‹Lv‚đ‚ŕ‚Ć‚ÉŒž—t‚Ě‘˝—lŤ‹y‚Ń–Ż‘°‚Ě’aś‚Ɛ˘ŠEŠe’n‚Ö‚Ě•ŞŽU‚đŒę‚郈[ƒƒbƒp‚ĚŒ¤‹†ŽŇ‚˝‚ż‚́A“ú’†—ź•ś‰ťŒ—‚Ě—ŢŽ—“_‚â‘Šˆá“_‚đ\•Ş—‰đ‚Ĺ‚Ť‚Ä‚¨‚炸A‚ą‚ĚŒťŰ‚͈ăŠw‚Ě•Ş–ě‚É‚¨‚˘‚Ä‚ŕ“Ż—l‚ž‚Á‚˝B‚P‚X˘‹I’† ‚܂ł́Au’†‘l‚Ć“ú–{l‚ĚčI‹„v‚đ“ŻˆęŽ‹‚ˇ‚é‹Lq‚΂Š‚č‚ž‚Á‚˝B

‚ť‚ĚŒăA“ŒƒAƒWƒA‚Í‚ć‚č‚ľ‚Á‚Š‚č‚ľ‚˝•ű–@˜_‚ÉŠî‚Ă‚˘‚ĕސ͂ł‚ę‚é‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝‚ށA’†‘‚ŞčI‹„‚Ě”­Ë’n‚Ć‚ľ‚č‚‚˘’–Ú‚đW‚ß‚éˆę•ű‚ŁA‹ß—׏”‘‚Ě“`“ˆăŠw‚ÍŽó—e‚â–Í•í‚Ć‚˘‚¤ŠĎ“_‚Ě‚Ý‚Ĺ”FŽŻ‚ł‚ę‚Ş‚ż‚Ĺ‚ ‚Á‚˝B—á‚Ś‚΁A’˜–ź‚ȁw’†‘‚Ěƒ‰ƒ“ƒZƒbƒgxi‚P‚X‚W‚O”Nj‚Łu‘ź•ś‰ť‚ւ̉e‹żv‚ɂ‚˘‚ďq‚ׂ˝˜DŒj’ż‚Ć‚iEƒj[ƒ_ƒ€‚́Aź—ml‚Ş“ú–{‚Ĺ“üŽč‚ľ‚˝čI‹„‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éî•ń‚ĆŽ‘—ż‚đÚ×‚ÉŽć‚čă‚°‚Č‚Ş‚çA’†ˆă‚Ć‚Ě‘Šˆá“_‚É‘S‚­‹C‚ނ‚Š‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝[2]B“Ż—l‚ČŒŠ•ű‚͍Ą“ú‚Ĺ‚ŕŒˆ‚ľ‚Ä’ż‚ľ‚­‚Č‚­Au’†‰›v‚ɑ΂ˇ‚éuŽü•Óv‚ĚŽŠ—§ŤA“Ć‘nŤA—đŽj“IvŒŁ‚ɁA‚ć‚č’ˆÓ‚đ•Ľ‚í‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚˘[3]BˆČ‰ş‚ɁA‚ť‚Ě‚˝‚ß‚Ě”Ž–—á‚đ‹“‚°‚é‚ą‚Ć‚É‚ˇ‚éB

 

î•ń”­M’n‚Ć‚ľ‚Ắu˝‘“ú–{v

–žE´Žž‘ă‚Ě’†‘‚́u‰şŠC’Ę”×”V‹Öv‚Ć‚˘‚¤­ô‚ĹŠOŠE‚Ć‚ĚŒđ—Ź‚đ‹K§‚ľ‚Ä‚¨‚čAƒˆ[ƒƒbƒpl‚Ě“ü‘‚Í‹É‚ß‚Ä‹H‚Č‚ą‚Ć‚ž‚Á‚˝B“ú–{‚Ĺ‚ŕ–LbG‹g‚Ě”ş“V˜A’Ç•ú—߁i“Vł15”Nj‚đ”çŘ‚č‚É‚P‚U˘‹I–– ˆČ~A—đ‘ă‚ĚŒ —ÍŽŇ‚ÍÝ“ú‚Ě“ě”ؐl‚̍s“Ž”ÍˆÍ‚đŽŸ‘ć‚É‹ˇ‚߁AŠ°‰i‚P‚U”Ni1639j‚ÉŒö•z‚ľ‚˝ƒ|ƒ‹ƒgƒKƒ‹‘D‚Ě—ˆq‹ÖŽ~‚É‚ć‚čA´’Š‚ĆŽ—‚˝Žp¨‚đŽć‚Á‚˝‚ށAź‘O”ˁA‘Δn”ˁAŽF–€”˂ɂ͈ę’č‚̑ΊOŒđ—Ź‚Ş‹–‚ł‚ęA“V—Ě’ˇč‚̓Iƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_“ŒƒCƒ“ƒh‰ďŽĐ‹y‚Ń’†‘¤l‚Ć‚Ě–fˆŐ`‚Ć‚Č‚Á‚˝B–‹–– ‚܂ŁA”X‚Ěƒˆ[ƒƒbƒplˆăŽt‚ޏo“‡—–ŠŮˆă‚Ć‚ľ‚Äă—¤‚ľA“ú‰˘ˆăŠwŒđ—Ź‚Ě’S‚˘Žč‚Ć‚Č‚Á‚˝B‚P‚U˘‹IŒă”ź‚Š‚ç‚P‚X˘‹I’† ‚É‚Š‚Ż‚Đź—m‚Ĺ”­•\‚ł‚ę‚˝–ń‚Q‚S‚O“_‚̏‘ĐA˜_•śA•ń‚Ě‚VŠ„ˆČă‚́A“ú–{‚Ĺ‚ĚŠĎŽ@‚â“ú–{‚Ĺ“üŽč‚ľ‚˝Ž‘—ż‚ÉŠî‚Ă‚˘‚ÄŽˇ•M‚ł‚ę‚˝B

 

˜aŠżˆăŠw‚Ɋ֐S‚đŠń‚š‚é“ě”ؐl

ƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ďŽmƒTƒrƒGƒ‹‚Ěă—¤‚Š‚çŽn‚Ü‚é“ú•’Œđ—ŹŽž‘ăi1549`1639”Nj‚É‚¨‚˘‚āA•ś‰ťŒđŠˇ‚Ě’S‚˘Žč‚đ–ą‚ß‚˝‚Ě‚Íƒ|ƒ‹ƒgƒKƒ‹og‚̐鋳Žt‚Ə¤l‚ž‚Á‚˝Bé‹łŽt‚̏‘ŠČAƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ď‚Ě”NŽŸ•ńAƒtƒƒCƒX_•ƒ‚Ě’˜‘A’ˇč‚ŏo”Ĺ‚ł‚ę‚˝“ú•’Ž–“T‚Ȃǂ́A“–Žž‚Ě—lŽq‚đ”äŠr“IÚ×‚ÉŽŚ‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚é[4]B“ú–{‚É“`‚í‚Á‚˝ź—mˆă‘‚ŕƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚É“Í‚˘‚˝“ú–{‚Ěˆă‘‚ŕŒť‘ś‚ĚŽj—ż‚Ĺ‚ÍŒŠ‚‚Š‚ç‚Č‚˘‚ށA“ú–{lˆăŽt‚Ć“ě”ؐlˆăŽt‚̐ڐG‚ÉŒž‹y‚ľ‚˝‹Lq‚Í‚ ‚éBƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ď‚Ö‚Ě“ü‰ď‘O‚ÉŠO‰Čˆă‚Ě–Ć‹–‚đŽć“ž‚ľA–fˆŐ¤‚đ‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝ƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ďŽmƒfEƒAƒ‹ƒƒCƒ_iLuís de Almeida, 1525? - 1583j‚Ş•{“ŕ‚ɐݗ§‚ľ‚˝•a‰@i•S°j‚́A“ú–{‚É‚¨‚Ż‚鐟—mˆăŠw‚ĚŽn‚Ü‚č‚Ć‚ľ‚Ä‘˝‚­‚ĚŒ¤‹†ŽŇ‚É‚ć‚čŽ]‚Ś‚ç‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚é‚ŞA‚ą‚Ě•a‰@‚́A‚Ţ‚ľ‚됟—m‚ĚŠO‰Č‚Ć˜aŠż‚́u“ŕ‰Čv‚Ě‹¤ś‚̏ę‚Ć‚ľ‚Ä’–Ú‚É’l‚ˇ‚é[5]B

“–Žž‚̏‘ŠČ‚É‚ć‚ę‚΁A‚P‚T‚U‚OA‚V‚O”N‘ă‚É‚Í“ě”ؐl‚ĚŠO‰Čp‚͍‚‚˘•]‰ż‚đ“ž‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚悤‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB‚ą‚ą‚ŐVŒ^‚Ě“S–C‘n‚ĚŽč“–‚Ä‚âƒAƒ‰ƒLŽđ‚É‚ć‚é‘nôA‚Ü‚˝‹Ž‰iƒ}ƒ“ƒeƒCƒJjAƒIƒŠ[ƒu–űiƒ|ƒ‹ƒgƒKƒ‹–űAƒAƒZƒCƒej‚̉ž—p‚đŽw“E‚ˇ‚錤‹†ŽŇ‚ŕ­‚Č‚­‚Č‚˘B‚ľ‚Š‚ľA‚ť‚ę‚Ş“ú–{‚Ěˆă—Â𕢂ˇ‚悤‚Ȑi•ŕ‚đˆÓ–Ą‚ˇ‚é‚Š‚Ç‚¤‚Š‚Í‹^–â‚Ě—]’n‚Ş‚ ‚éB—á‚Ś‚΁A–Ą‘X‚Č‚Ç‚đ—˜—p‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝“ú–{‚Ě‹ŕገă‚Í[6]A‚ť‚ŕ‚ť‚ŕź—mˆăŽt‚̂悤‚É”M‚ľ‚˝–ű‚đ‚É’‚Ž‚Č‚ÇŽv‚˘‚ŕ‚ć‚ç‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝‚ľA‚Ü‚˝Aƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚É‚¨‚˘‚Ä‚ŕAƒMƒŠƒVƒƒEƒ[ƒ}‚ĚŒĂ“T‚É‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝“S–C‘n‚Ě—đŽj‚Í‚Ü‚žó‚­A‚ť‚̐ŤŽż‚⎥—Ă–@‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚Á‚Ä‚P‚V˘‹I‚Ü‚Ĺ‚Š‚Č‚čŒƒ‚ľ‚˘˜_‘ˆ‚Ş‘ą‚˘‚˝[7]BƒAƒ“ƒuƒƒ[ƒYEƒpƒŒ‚Ş‚P‚T‚S‚T”N‚É‚Ü‚Ć‚ß‚˝‰ćŠú“I‚ČŽĄ—Ă–@‚Ş‚ˇ‚Ž‚Ƀ|ƒ‹ƒgƒKƒ‹‚đŒo‚Ä“ú–{‚É‚Ü‚Ĺ“Í‚˘‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚Š‚Ç‚¤‚Š‚Í‹^–â‚Ĺ‚ ‚é[8]B

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u“Ż—l‚É‚Ü‚˝AuŠá‚â—â‚ŚÇ[29]‚đŠł‚¤•al‚đ’ź‚ˇ‚ɂ́A‚ť‚̐g‘Ě‚ÉŽOç‚Š‚çŽlç‚Ě‰Î‚Ěƒ{ƒ^ƒ“mbotoẽs de fogon‚đ˜‚Ś‚é‚ׂľv‚Ć‹L‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚ށA‚ą‚¤‚˘‚¤‚ą‚Ć‚Í“ú–{‚Ĺ‚ÍŽŠ‹É“–‚˝‚č‘O‚Ȃ̂ŁA‚ć‚Ů‚Ç˜b‚đŠ„‚čˆř‚˘‚Ä•ˇ‚­‚ׂŤ‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB‰˝ŒĚ‚Š‚Ć‚˘‚¤‚ƁA‚ą‚̂悤‚ȁu‰Î‚Ěƒ{ƒ^ƒ“v‚Í“ú–{‚ł́AŠŁ‘‡‚ł‚š‚˝u–ň‘—ށv‚Š‚çAŹ“¤‚Ü‚˝‚Í’ŃžÖ‚ĚŽí‚­‚炢‘ĺ‚Ť‚ł‚Ě‹…‚ÉŽdă‚°Ag‘Ě‚Ěă‚ɍڂš‚āA‚ť‚̏ă‚ɉ΂đ‚‚ŻA‘S•””R‚Śs‚Ť‚é‚Ü‚Ĺ”R‚â‚ľ‚Ä‚¨‚­‚ŕ‚Ě‚ž‚Š‚ç‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB‚ą‚ę‚Í’N‚É‚Ĺ‚ŕŽčŒy‚É‚Ĺ‚Ť‚éB‚ť‚ę‚đg‘Ě‚Ě“Ż‚śęŠ‚É‚P‚TŒÂ‚Š‚Q‚OŒÂ‚­‚炢˜‚Ś‚é‚ƁAg‘Ě‚Ě‚ť‚Ě‰ÓŠ‚Í‚ˇ‚Á‚Š‚č“Ý‚­‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚ľ‚Ü‚˘A‚ť‚ęˆČă‚˘‚­‚琘‚Ś‚Ä‚ŕA‚Ů‚Ć‚ń‚Ç’É‚Ý‚đŠ´‚ś‚Č‚­‚Č‚é‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB‚ľ‚˝‚Ş‚Á‚āA‚ť‚ę‚Í‚í‚ę‚í‚ęƒˆ[ƒƒbƒpl‚ŞŒž‚¤‚悤‚ȁu‰Î‚ą‚āv‚̂悤‚Č‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚Í‚Č‚˘BŽ„ŽŠgA‚ť‚Ě“ú–{‚Ě‚ŕ‚Ě‚đŽŽi‚˝‚߁j‚ľ‚ɁAŽíX‚Ě’É‚Ý‚âŠá•a‚ɑ΂ľ‚R‚O‚O‚OŒÂˆČăA”w’†‚â•G‚ɐ˜‚Ś‚˝‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚Á‚˝B[30]v

“–Žž‚̏‘ŠČ‚â•ń‚Ĺ‹„‚ÉŒž‹y‚ˇ‚éŰ‚ɂ͐鋳Žt‚˝‚ż‚́Aubotão de fogovi‰Î‚Ěƒ{ƒ^ƒ“j‚Ć‚˘‚¤ÄŽÜŠí‚Ě–źĚ‚đ–óŒę‚Ć‚ľ‚Ä—p‚˘‚Ä‚˘‚˝B‚ľ‚Š‚ľAź—m‚́u‰Î‚Ěƒ{ƒ^ƒ“v‚́A”j‚ę‚˝ŒŒŠÇ‚đÇ‚˘‚ž‚čAˆę’č‚Ě”ÍˆÍ‚Ĺ‰ť”^‚đ—U”­‚ˇ‚é‚˝‚ß‚ĚŽÜ”M‚Ě“Sť“š‹ď‚Ȃ̂ŁA“ú–{‚Łu‰Î‚Ěƒ{ƒ^ƒ“v‚ŞŽg‚í‚ę‚é‰ń”‚Ě‘˝‚ł‚Ƀˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ě“ÇŽŇ‚Í“–‘R‚Ě‚ą‚Ć‚Č‚Ş‚ç‹Á‚˘‚˝B

ˆę•ű‚ŁA‚P‚T‚W‚T”N‚ɉ˘“ú‚Ě”äŠr•ś‰ť˜_‚đ‚Ü‚Ć‚ß‚˝ƒtƒƒCƒX‚É‚ć‚ę‚΁A“ú–{l‚Í”Af’f‚âŕbŒŒAŸŻ’°AÄŽÜ‚ȂǁAƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ĺ•s‰ÂŒ‡‚Ć‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚é“`““IŽĄ—Ă‚đŽó‚Ż“ü‚ę‚˝‚Ş‚ç‚Č‚˘‚Ə‘‚˘‚Ä‚¨‚čA“ú–{lˆăŽt‚⊳ŽŇ‚͐ź—m‚ĚŽĄ—Ă–@‚ÉŒˆ‚ľ‚Ĉł“|‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚΂Š‚č‚Ĺ‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝[31]B‚ľ‚˝‚Ş‚Á‚Ä‚P‚U˘‹I‚ĚˆăŠwEˆă—Ïă‚Ě“ŒźŒđ—Ź‚͈ę•ű“I‚Č‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ĺ‚Í‚Č‚­A‚Š‚Č‚čƒoƒ‰ƒ“ƒX‚ŞŽć‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚悤‚Ĺ‚ ‚éBŒĹ’č‚ľ‚˝Žt’íŠÖŒW‚̂悤‚Č‚ŕ‚Ě‚ŕ‚Č‚­Aź—mˆăŠw‚ĚŠMůsi‚ŞŽn‚Ü‚Á‚˝‚í‚Ż‚Ĺ‚ŕ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝B

Žc”O‚Č‚ą‚ƂɁAƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒVƒXƒREƒpƒVƒ‡‚Ş‚P‚U‚P‚Q”N‚ɁAƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ďŽm‚É‚ć‚éˆăŠw‚̕׋­‹y‚Ń‚ˇ‚×‚Ä‚Ěˆă—Ísˆ×‚đ–łđŒ‚Ĺ‹ÖŽ~‚ľ‚˝‚˝‚߁AˆăŠw‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚é‹Lq‚͏Á‚Ś‚Ä‚ľ‚Ü‚Á‚˝[32]B‚ť‚ĚŒă—ˆ“ú‚ľ‚˝ƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒVƒXƒR‰ďŽm‚âƒAƒEƒOƒXƒeƒBƒm‰ďŽm‚Í”ńí‚ÉŒŁg“I‚É•al‚̐˘˜b‚É“–‚˝‚Á‚˝‚ށA”Ţ‚ç‚Ěˆă—ĂŠˆ“Ž‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä‚ŕÚ×‚Č•śŒŁ‚ÍŒť‘ś‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚Č‚˘[33]B

ƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ď‚Č‚Ç‚Ě‹ł‰ďAŠw‰@‚â•a‰@‚ŕ’ˇ‚­‚Í‘ą‚Š‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝B•{“ŕ‚Ě•a‰@‚Í‚P‚T‚W‚V”N‚É”j‰ó‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚ľ‚Ü‚˘AŽŸ‘ć‚É‹­‚Ü‚éƒLƒŠƒVƒ^ƒ“’eˆł‚É‚ć‚čA“ŒźˆăŠw‚Ě‹¤ś‚đ‰M‚í‚š‚é‚ą‚Ě—L–]‚ČŽŽ‚Ý‚Í’ZŠúŠÔ‚ŏI‚í‚Á‚Ä‚ľ‚Ü‚Á‚˝B‚P‚T‚W‚X”NAƒRƒGƒŠƒˆ‚ޏC“š‰ď’ˇˆś‚Ä‚Ě‘ŠČ‚Ě’†‚ŁAuˆăŽt‚Ş‚˘‚Č‚­‚āA–ň‚ŕ‚Č‚­AŕbŒŒ‚Ě•ű–@‚đ’N‚ŕ’m‚ç‚Č‚˘A”—ŠQ‚Ě˜J‹ę‚Š‚çC“š‰ďŽm‚Ş‚ŕ‚¤‚Rl‚ŕ•aŽ€‚ľ‚Ä‚ľ‚Ü‚Á‚˝v‚Ć’Q‚˘‚Ä‚˘‚é[34]B‚Q”NŒăA‹ž“s‚Ĺ”­•a‚ľ‚˝ƒWƒ‡ƒAƒ“EƒƒhƒŠƒQƒX‚ÍŽĄ—Ă‚Ě‚˝‚ß‚V‚O‚O‚‹‚—Ł‚ę‚˝’ˇč‚Ü‚Ĺ–ß‚ç‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝[35]B“ú–{l‚Ş’ˇč‚ʼn^‰c‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝ŠĹŒěŽ{Ý‚Ş‘S–Ĺ‚ľ‚˝‚Ě‚Í‚P‚U‚Q‚O”N‚ž‚Á‚˝B

 

 

“ú‰˘ˆăŽt‚ĚŒp‘ą“IŒđ—Ź‚đ‰Â”\‚É‚ľ‚˝ƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_¤ŠŮ‚ĚˆÚ“]

‚P‚U‚O‚X”N‚Š‚ç•˝ŒË‚ŏ¤ŠŮ‚đ‰^‰c‚ľ‚˝ƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_“ŒƒCƒ“ƒh‰ďŽĐ‚Í‚ť‚Ě‚V”N‘O‚É’aś‚ľ‚˝Žjă‰‚ĚŠ”ŽŽ‰ďŽĐ‚Ĺ‚ ‚Á‚˝Bu“ŒƒCƒ“ƒhv‚Ě‚˘‚˝‚é‚Ć‚ą‚ë‚ɐݗ§‚ł‚ę‚˝¤ŠŮ‚ł́A“ü`‚ľ‚˝‰ďŽĐ‚Ě‘D‚ŋΖą‚ˇ‚éŠO‰Čˆă‚â’nŒł‚ĚˆăŽt‚ŞŠłŽŇ‚ĚŽĄ—Ă‚É“–‚˝‚Á‚˝B‹’“_“sŽsƒoƒ^ƒrƒA‚𒆐S‚ÉŽŸ‘ć‚ÉŽĐ“ŕ‚Ěˆă—Ñ̐§‚ސŽ‚Ś‚ç‚ę‚˝‚ށAƒAƒ€ƒXƒeƒ‹ƒ_ƒ€–ň‹Ç•ű‚É“K‡‚ˇ‚éˆă–ň•i‹y‚Ń—L”\‚ČˆăŽt‚ĚŠm•Ű‚Í—eˆŐ‚Ĺ‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝B“ě”ؐl‚̍‘ŠO’Ç•úŒăA•˝ŒË‚̏¤ŠŮ‚Í–‹•{‚Ě’źŠ’n‚ÖˆÚ“]‚ł‚ę‚˝B‚ą‚ę‚É‚ć‚čA“ú‰˘ˆăŠwŒđ—Ź‚ĚđŒ‚Íˆę‹C‚É•Ď‚í‚Á‚˝B‚P‚U‚S‚P”N‚Š‚çAĚ—pŽŽŒą‚ɍ‡Ši‚ľ‚˝í’“‚ĚˆăŽt‚Şă—¤‚ľA­‚Č‚­‚Ć‚ŕˆę”NŠÔ¤ŠŮ‚ŋΖą‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝B‚ą‚ę‚ç‚̏¤ŠŮˆă‚́A¤ŠŮ’ˇ‚̍]ŒËŽQ•{‚É‚ŕs‚ľ‚˝‚̂ŁA’ˇč‚݂̂Ȃ炸]ŒË‚É‚¨‚˘‚Ä‚ŕƒˆ[ƒƒbƒplˆăŽt‚Ć‚ĚŒp‘ą“I‚ȐڐG‚މ”\‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝B‚Ü‚˝A]ŒË‚Ć’ˇč‚ŋΖą‚É‚ ‚˝‚é‚Q–ź‚Ě’ˇč•ňs‚Ě’čŠúŒđ‘ă‚É‚ć‚čA¤ŠŮ‚Ć‚ť‚̐lŢ‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éî•ń‚ށA‚ł‚ç‚É‘˝‚­]ŒË‚Ö“`‚í‚Á‚˝B

‰ďŽĐ‚Ě–fˆŐŠˆ“Ž‚É“‚í‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚Č‚˘¤ŠŮˆă‚́A¤–ąˆő‚ć‚莊—R‚Ĺ‚ ‚čAg•Ş‚̍‚‚˘“ú–{lŠłŽŇ‚ĚŽĄ—Ă‚ŕ—Š‚Ü‚ę‚˝‚̂ŁA‰œˆăŽtA“TˆăAˆăŠŻ‚Č‚Ç—DG‚ČˆăŽt‚ƐڐG‚Ĺ‚Ť‚˝B‚ą‚Ě“_‚É‚¨‚˘‚āA“ú—–Œđ—ŹŽž‘ă‚̍g–ѐlˆăŽt‚ÍˆČ‘O‚Ě“ě”ؐl‚ć‚čŒb‚Ü‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚ށA’ˇŠú‘ŘÝ‹y‚Ń“ú–{Œę‚ĚŠwK‚Ş‹Ö‚ś‚ç‚ę‚˝‚̂ŁAŽŠ—Í‚Ĺ˜aŠżĐ‚đ“Ç‚Ţ‚ą‚Ć‚Í‚Ĺ‚Ť‚¸A‚ˇ‚×‚Ä‚ĚƒRƒ~ƒ…ƒjƒP[ƒVƒ‡ƒ“‚É‚¨‚˘‚ĈăŠw‚̐ę–ĺ‰Ć‚Ĺ‚Í‚Č‚˘ˆ˘—–‘É’ĘŽŒ‚Ɉˑś‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝B­‚Č‚­‚Ć‚ŕ‚P‚W˘‹I––‚Ü‚ĹŒž—t‚Ě•Ç‚ŞÚ×‚Č•ŞÍ‚Ć[‚˘—‰đ‚Ě–W‚°‚Ć‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚˝[36]B

o“‡¤ŠŮ’ˇ“ú‹L‚Č‚Ç‚ĚŽj—ż‚ɁA‚X‚O–ź—]‚ĚˆăŽtiŠO‰ČˆăA“ŕ‰Čˆăj‹y‚Ń–ňÜŽt‚Ě–ź‚ŞŒfÚ‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚éB‚P‚W˘‹I‘O”ź‚܂ł͑呲‚Ě“ŕ‰Čˆă‚ć‚肢‚í‚ä‚鏰‰ŽŠO‰Čˆă‚Ě•ű‚Ş‘˝‚Š‚Á‚˝‚ށAƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ĺ‚ĚˆăŠw‹łˆç‚Ě”­’B‚Ć‚Ć‚ŕ‚É—ˆ“ú‚ˇ‚éˆăŽt‚ĚŽż‚ŕŒüă‚ľ‚˝B“ú–{‚ĚˆăŠw‚Ɋ֐S‚đŠń‚š‚˝l•¨‚Ě’†‚ł́A“Á‚Ƀeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒlAƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹Aƒ[ƒwƒ}ƒ“Aƒcƒ“ƒxƒŠ‹y‚ŃƒV[ƒ{ƒ‹ƒg‚ŞŰ—§‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚ށAˆăŽt‚Ě–Ć‹–‚đŽ‚ÂƒNƒ‰ƒCƒ„[‚⑍‡“I“ú–{Œ¤‹†‚đ–ÚŽw‚ľ‚˝ƒeƒBƒcƒCƒ“ƒO‚Ć‚˘‚¤¤ŠŮ’ˇ‚ŕ˜aŠż–ň‚ĆčI‹„‚ɂ‚˘‚ĐϋɓI‚É’˛¸‚đs‚Á‚˝B

 

‘Ť’É•—‚ĚŽĄ—Ă–ň‚Ć‚ľ‚ẮuMoxav

ƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ďŽm‚́u‰Î‚Ěƒ{ƒ^ƒ“v‚É“xXŒž‹y‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚ށA–{Ši“I‚Č‹c˜_‚Ěˆř‚Ť‹ŕ‚Ć‚Č‚Á‚˝‚̂́Aƒoƒ^ƒrƒAÝZ‚Ě–qŽtƒwƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“EƒuƒVƒ‡ƒtiHermann Buschoff, 1620? - 1674[37]j‚Ş’˜‚ľ‚˝w‘Ť’É•—‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éÚ×‚ČŒ¤‹†‹y‚Ń‚ť‚ĚŠmŽŔ‚ČŽĄ—Ă–@‚ĆŒř‚Ť–Ú‚Ě‚ ‚é–ňÜ‚ɂ‚˘‚āx‚ž‚Á‚˝[38]B‘Ť’É•—iPodagraj‚đŠł‚¤ƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚́A“ŒƒCƒ“ƒh‰ďŽĐ‚ĚˆăŽt‚ĚŽĄ—Ă‚đŽó‚Ż‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚ށA’É‚Ý‚ŞŒyŒ¸‚ľ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝‚̂ŁA’†•”ƒxƒgƒiƒ€‚̍L“쉤‘og‚́u—ˆăvidoctoressej‚ɏ•‚Ż‚đ‹‚ß‚˝B”ޏ—‚́Au”ńí‚É’ˆÓ[‚­‘Ť‚ĚŠł•”‚đ’T‚Á‚˝Œă‚ŁA”Ţ‚Ě‹r‚Ć•G‚É”źŽžŠÔ‚ĚŠÔ‚ÉMoxa‚̏Ź‰ň‚đ–ń‚Q‚OŒÂ’u‚˘‚˝vBŠłŽŇ‚ĆˆăŽt‚̐f’f‚ވę’v‚ľ‚˝‚Š‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä‚Í‹^–â‚Ě—]’n‚Ş‚ ‚é‚ŞAŽĄ—Ă‚ĚŒř‰Ę‚̓uƒVƒ‡ƒt‚ĚŠú‘Ň‚đ‚Í‚é‚Š‚ɏă‰ń‚Á‚˝BˆČ~”ނ͉˝”N‚ŕ‚̊ԁAMoxa‚ĚŠ´“Ž“I‚ČŒř—p‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä’˛‚ׁA‚ť‚̐Ź‰Ę‚đw’É•—‚ĚÚ×‚Č‰đ–ž‚¨‚ć‚Ń‚ť‚ĚŠmŽŔ‚ČŽĄ—Ă–ňx‚Ć‚˘‚¤ŹűŽq‚É‚Ü‚Ć‚ß‚˝B—ˆ“ú‚ľ‚˝‚ą‚Ć‚Ş‚Č‚˘ƒoƒ^ƒrƒA‚Ě–qŽt‚Ş“ú–{Œę‚É—R—ˆ‚ˇ‚é–źĚ‚đ—p‚˘‚˝‚ą‚Ƃ́A“ú–{ŽY‚Ě‚ŕ‚Ž‚ł‚ލL‚­—Ź’Ę‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚ą‚Ć‚đŽŚ´‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚éBˆę”Ę‚Ě“ÇŽŇ‚đ‘ÎŰ‚É‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝ƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚Ě–{‚́A‘傢‚É’–Ú‚đW‚ß‚˝BƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œę”Łi1675”Nj‚É‘ą‚˘‚ĉpŒę”Łi1676”Nj‹y‚ŃƒhƒCƒcŒę”Łi1677”Nj‚ŞŠ§s‚ł‚ęAMoxa‚Ć‚˘‚¤VŒę‚đƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp’†‚É’č’…‚ł‚š‚˝[39]B

FIG 01

}‚P@‹„‚É‚ć‚é‘Ť’É•—‚ĚŽĄ—Ă‚đĐ‰î‚ˇ‚é“ş”ʼnćiMichael Bernhard Valentini: Museum Museorum, 1704A•MŽŇ‘ j

 

–{‚ĚĹŒă‚ɁAMoxa‚Ě“üŽčć‚ŞŒfÚ‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚éBƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_“ŒƒCƒ“ƒh‰ďŽĐ‚́uÄ‚Ť–ȁv‚͍‚’l‚ނ‚˘‚˝BƒhƒCƒc‚ĚŠO‰ČˆăƒvƒAƒ}ƒ“iM. Gottfried Purmann, 1648-1721j‚É‚ć‚ę‚΁Au‚ŕ‚Ž‚ł‚ĹŠďŐ‚ś‚Ý‚˝‚ą‚Ɓv‚đ‹N‚ą‚ľŽn‚ß‚˝ A”Ţ‚Í‘ĺ‹ŕ‚đ•Ľ‚Á‚˝B˜’É‚âŽlŽˆ’É‚ĚŠłŽŇ‚đ‰˝l‚ŠŽĄ—Ă‚ľ‚˝Œă‚É‚Í‚ŕ‚Ž‚ł‚Ş‚Č‚­‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚ľ‚Ü‚˘A‚’l‚ŁuŠO‰Čˆă‚˝‚ż‚Š‚ç‚Ů‚ń‚̏­‚ľ‚ž‚ŻvŽčŽ‚ż•Ş‚đ”ƒ‚˘Žć‚ç‚Č‚Ż‚ę‚΂Ȃç‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝B‚ť‚ĚŒăA‚ť‚ę‚ÍˆČ‘O‚Ů‚Ç‚ÍŽg‚í‚ę‚Č‚­‚Č‚Á‚˝‚ĆŽw“E‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚é[40]BƒhƒCƒclƒˆ[ƒnƒ“EƒNƒŠƒeƒBƒAƒ“EƒNƒ“ƒgƒ}ƒ“iJohann Christian Kundmann, 1684-1751j‚Ě‚P‚V‚R‚V”N‚Ě‹Lq‚É‚ć‚ę‚΁A‰Î‚đ•t‚Ż‚é‚˝‚ß‚Ě“š‹ď‚Ć‚ľ‚ÄŠŠ‚ß‚ç‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚˝ƒAƒWƒA‚̐ü‚́AƒAƒ€ƒXƒeƒ‹ƒ_ƒ€‚Ĺ‚Í‚¨‚ć‚ť‚R‚O”N‘O‚ɂ́Au‹Ö—A•i‚ž‚Á‚˝‚˝‚ß—´Ÿľ‚Ě螌C‚Ć‚˘‚¤–ź–ڂŁv‚Pƒ[ƒg‚ɂ‚Ť‚RƒMƒ‹ƒ_[‚ž‚Á‚˝‚ށA‚ŕ‚Ž‚ł‚Í‚ť‚ę‚ć‚č‚ł‚ç‚ɍ‚‰ż‚ž‚Á‚˝[41]B“ŒƒCƒ“ƒh‰ďŽĐ‚Ě–fˆŐ‘—Ţ‚É‚Í‘Ě‚Łuˆă–ň•iv‚Ć‚ž‚Ż‹L‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚é‚ŞA“Œ“ěƒAƒWƒA‚âA‚ ‚邢‚Í“ú–{‚Š‚ç‚ŕ‚ŕ‚Ž‚ł‚ރˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ö—Ao‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚ą‚Ć‚ÍŠÔˆá‚˘‚Č‚˘B

ƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚É‚ć‚é‚ƁA’É•—‚Í•sŽŠ‘R‚Ĺ“ŕ“I‚ŁAœ–Œ‚̉œ[‚­ö‚ń‚žŹ‚ł‚ČŽî‚ę‚ŁA‚ť‚ę‚đˆř‚Ť‹N‚ą‚ˇ‚̂́uŠŁ‚˘‚Ä—â‚˝‚­AˆŤŤ‚̏ö‹CiƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_ŒęAeen drooge en koude quaedt-aerdige dampjv‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB‚ą‚̏ö‹C‚́u“Ž–Ź‚Š‚çAS‘Ÿ‚Ě”ro—Í‚É‚ć‚čAœ‚ƍœ–Œ‚ĚŠÔ‚đ’Ę‚Á‚Ä’Ç‚˘o‚łv‚ę‚éB‚ą‚ę‚͊֐߂̉ń‚č‚É‹N‚ą‚čA—á‚̏ö‹C‚Ş‚ť‚ą‚ɕ‚śž‚ß‚ç‚ęA‚ť‚ę‚Ş”ńí‚É•qŠ´‚ȍœ–Œ‚đL‚°‚Ä’Ł‚č‚‚߁A‚ť‚Ě‚˝‚ߌƒ’É‚Ş‘–‚čA“–ŠY‚ĚŽlŽˆ‚Ş“Ž‚Š‚š‚Č‚­‚Č‚é[42]B’É•—‚ĚŽî‚ęigeswelj‚ÍŒłX“ŕ“I‚Č‚ŕ‚̂ŁA‚˝‚˘‚Ä‚˘‚ÍŒŠ‚Ś‚Č‚˘[43]BŠO‚Š‚猊‚Ś‚éᎂ͏Ǐó‚ĚˆęŽí‚ɉ߂Ź‚Č‚˘[44]B‚ą‚Ě“_‚Ĺ‚ÍŒ ˆĐ‚ ‚éŠwŕ‚Ě‘˝‚­‚Ş–ł—Í‚É‚Č‚čA•aˆöŠwă‚̍Ź—‚đˆř‚Ť‹N‚ą‚ľ‚˝‚ž‚낤‚ĆƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚͏q‚ׂâ‚é[45]B”Ţ‚Ě—˜_“IŒă‚돂‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝‚̂͐”X‚Ěƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ěˆă‘‚ĆˆăŽt‚ž‚Ż‚Ĺ‚Č‚­A”Ţ‚Şu’m‚č“ž‚˝ŒŔ‚č‚Ĺ‚Í’†‘l‚ĚˆăŽt‚˝‚żiChinese Doctorenj‚ŕ‘S‚Ä“ŻˆęˆÓŒŠ‚ž‚Á‚˝v[46]B

ƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚̓oƒ^ƒrƒA‚Ě’†‘l‚Š‚ç‚ą‚̂悤‚Čŕ–ž‚đŽó‚Ż‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚낤‚ށA”Ţ‚ç‚Ě•a—Šw‚đ—‰đ‚ˇ‚é‚É‚Í‘˝‚­‚̏áŠQ‚Ş‚ ‚Á‚˝BŒ‹‹ÇAƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚ÍŽŠ‚鏊‚Ĺ“Œ—mˆăŠw‚Š‚ç“ž‚˝ƒqƒ“ƒg‚𐟗mˆăŠw‚ɍ‡‚í‚š‚Č‚Ş‚çA‚ť‚́uö‹Cv‚đuŠŁAŠŚv‚Ć“Á’Ľ‚Ă‚ŻAuˆŤŤ‚Ě•…”sv‚ƍŹ“Ż‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚é[47]B‚ť‚ę‚́uŽă‚˘’g‹Cv‚É‚ć‚ču•…‚Á‚˝…•Ş‚⌌‚Š‚çA‚˝‚˘‚Ä‚˘‚Í‘Ě“ŕ‚̊튯v‚Ĺ‚ ‚éˆÝAŠĚ‘ŸAäB‘Ÿ‚âu“Ş•”“ŕ‚Ĺ‚ŕv”­ś‚ľA‚ť‚ą‚Š‚猌ŠÇ‚đ’Ę‚Á‚ĐS‘Ÿ‚Ö‰^‚΂ę‚éBS‘Ÿ‚Í‚ą‚ę‚đŽć‚čœ‚ą‚¤‚ƁA“Ž–Ź‚đ’Ę‚ľ‚Ä‚Ĺ‚Ť‚é‚ž‚Ż‰“‚­‚ĚŽlŽˆ‚Ö’Ç‚˘‚â‚é[48]B‚ť‚ą‚Ĺ‚ť‚̏ö‹C‚͍œ–Œ‚ƍœ‚ĚŠÔ‚É“ü‚荾‚݁AŒƒ’ɂސś‚ś‚é[49]BƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚ĚˆóŰ‚ł́AŽĄ—Ă‚Ě–Ú“I‚́uŠł•”‚ɕ‚śž‚ß‚ç‚ę‚˝ö‹C‚đŽć‚čœ‚ŤA”ro‚ł‚š‚év‚ą‚Ć‚ž‚Á‚˝[50]B‚ŕ‚Ž‚ł‚Í“Ž–Ź‚̏ă‚É’u‚­‚Ě‚ŞĹ—Ç‚ĹAu’É‚Ý‚Ş‚Đ‚Ç‚­AˆŤŤ•¨Žż‚Ş‚Ü‚žŽc‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚ÄŒŒ‰t’†‚É•Ş‚Š‚ę‚Đö‚ń‚Ĺ‚˘‚é‚ą‚Ć‚đŠm”F‚ľ‚Ä‚¨‚­vB‚ť‚ę‚Š‚ç‚ŕ‚Ž‚ł‚ށuˆŤŤ‚Ě•¨Žż‚Ü‚˝‚͏ö‹Cv‚đˆř‚Ťo‚ˇ‚ą‚Ć‚É‚Č‚é[51]B‚ą‚ą‚É‚ŕ“Œ—mˆăŠw‚̍­Ő‚đŒŠ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚Ş‚Ĺ‚Ť‚éB

ƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚ÍŒ´—ż‚đ–ž‚ç‚Š‚É‚ľ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝‚˝‚߁AƒhƒCƒc‚ĚŽŠ‘R‰ČŠwŽŇ‹Ś‰ďLeopoldina‚ĚŠwŽŇ‚˝‚ż‚Í‚ť‚Ě“Ż’č‚đ‹}‚˘‚ŁAƒoƒ^ƒrƒA‚Ě–ň‹Ç‚đŒo‰c‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝‰ďˆőƒNƒ‰ƒCƒ„[iAndreas Cleyer, 1634-1698j‚É‹łŽŚ‚đ‹‚ß‚˝[52]BˆăŽt‚Ě–Ć‹–‚đŽ‚ÂƒNƒ‰ƒCƒ„[‚́A“ŒƒCƒ“ƒh‰ďŽĐ“ŕ‚Ěˆă–ň•i‹Ÿ‹‹‚̍ō‚Ó”CŽŇ‚Ĺ‚ŕ‚ ‚Á‚˝‚̂ŁA“ú–{Œę‚Ě–źĚ‚Ĺ‚ ‚éuMoxav‚ĚŒ´—ż‚Í‚˝‚ž‚́uArtemisiaviƒˆƒ‚ƒMj‚ž‚ށA‚ť‚̉ÁH‚͋ɂ߂ďd—v‚ž‚Ć‚Ě•ÔŽ–‚đ‘—‚Á‚˝BK‰^‚É‚ŕƒNƒ‰ƒCƒ„[‚Í‚P‚U‚W‚P”NH‚ɏo“‡¤ŠŮ’ˇ‚ɏA”C‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ć‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝BˆČ‘O‚Š‚çƒAƒWƒAŽY‚̐ś–ň‚ɂ‚˘‚ÄŒ¤‹†‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝ƒNƒ‰ƒCƒ„[‚́A“ú–{‚̐A•¨’˛¸‚đi‚ß‚Č‚Ş‚çA‚P‚U‚W‚Q”N‚̍]ŒËŽQ•{’†Moxa‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚é‚ł‚ç‚Č‚éî•ń‚ĚŽűW‚đs‚Á‚˝[53]Bƒ‰ƒeƒ“Œę‚É–ó‚ł‚ę‚˝”Ţ‚Ě‘ŠČ‚Ě”˛ˆ‚́AƒŒƒIƒ|ƒ‹ƒfƒB[ƒi‚Ě‹@ŠÖŽMiscellanea Curiosa‚ĚŠŞ“Ş˜_•ś‚Ć‚ľ‚ăˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚ĚŠwŽŇ‚Ě’–Ú‚đW‚ß‚˝i}‚Qj[54]B

FIG 02

}‚Q@Moxa‚ĚŒ´—ż‚đ“`‚Ś‚éƒNƒ‰ƒCƒ„[‘ŠČ‚Ě”˛ˆiMiscellanea Curiosa, Dec. 2, Ann. 4, p.1A•MŽŇ‘ j

 

ƒoƒ^ƒrƒA‚Ő”ƒ–ŒŽŠÔƒNƒ‰ƒCƒ„[‚ƐeŒđ‚ľ‚˝‚Ě‚ż‚P‚U‚W‚X”N‚̏H‚Š‚ç‚Q”NŠÔo“‡¤ŠŮ‚ŋΖą‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝“ŕ‰ČˆăƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹iEngelbert Kaempfer, 1651-1716j‚́A‚ť‚ę‚Ü‚Ĺ‚ĚŒ¤‹†‚đ“Ľ‚Ü‚Ś‚Č‚Ş‚çA“ú–{‚Ĺ“üŽč‚ľ‚˝u‹„ŠŠÓv‚̐}”Ĺ‚Ć–ó•ś‚đw‰ô‘ŠďŠĎxi1712”NŠ§j‚Ĺ”­•\‚ľA‰‚ß‚ÄMoxa‚Ě•L‚˘‰ž—p”ÍˆÍ‚đŽŚ‚ľ‚˝[55]BƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚Í‚Ć‚č‚í‚Ż”畆‚đ”j‚čŽ{‹„•”‚É”K‚Č‚Ç‚đŽC‚荾‚݉ť”^‚đˆř‚Ť‹N‚ˇ‘Ĺ”^‹„‚É’…–Ú‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝B–Ɖu—Í‚đ‚‚ß‚é‚ą‚Ě‹„–@‚́AŽî•¨‚É‚ŕ—p‚˘‚ç‚ęAź—ml‚É‚Ć‚Á‚āA”[“ž‚ľ‚₡‚˘‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ş‚ ‚Á‚˝BŽhŒƒÜAp–ň‚ȂǂŁA”畆‚đŽhŒƒ‚ľ‰ť”^‚đˆř‚Ť‹N‚ľAˆŤ‚˘•¨Žżimateria peccansj‚đˆęƒ•Š‚É—U“ą‚ľA‘ĚŠO‚Ö”ro‚ł‚š‚鎥—Ă–@‚ÍŒĂ‘ăƒMƒŠƒVƒƒŽž‘ă‚Š‚çRevulsio‚Ć‚ľ‚Ä“`K‚ł‚ę‚˝B‚Ü‚˝AƒCƒ^ƒŠƒA‚ĚƒAƒ‹ƒsƒkƒX‹łŽöiProsper Alpinus / Alpini, 1553-1617j‚ށwƒGƒWƒvƒgl‚ĚˆăŠw‚ɂ‚˘‚āx‚Ć‚˘‚¤‚P‚X˘‹I‚܂Ŕłđd‚Ë‚˝–ź’˜‚Ĺ“Ż—l‚Ȕ畆ŽhŒƒ‚ɂ‚˘‚ďڍׂɕń‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚ą‚Ƃ́AƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚ŕn’m‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝[56]Bi}‚Rj

‚ą‚Ě˜_•ś‹y‚Ń“ŻŽž‚É”­•\‚ľ‚˝čIp‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚é˜_•ś‚ÍŒă‚ɃPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚Ě–ź’˜w“ú–{Žx‚Ě•˜^‚Ć‚ľ‚ĉpŒęAƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒęAƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_ŒęAƒhƒCƒcŒę‚É–ó‚ł‚ę‚P‚X˘‹I‚Ü‚ĹL‚­“Ç‚Ü‚ę‚˝BƒGƒWƒvƒg‚Ćƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ě“`“ˆăŠw‚Ć‚Ě—ŢŽ—“_‚đ“Ľ‚Ü‚Ś‚˝Œ`‚ĹˆĘ’u‚Ă‚Ż‚ç‚ę‚˝Moxa‚́A“Œ—mˆăŠw‚Ě”wŒi‚đ‹C‚É‚š‚¸‚ÉŽĺ‚É‘Ť’É•—‚ĚŽĄ—Ă–ň‚ɒljÁ‚ł‚ę‚˝B

FIG 03

}‚R@ƒGƒWƒvƒg‚Ĺ‚Ě‹„–@‚É‚ć‚éu”˝‘ÎŽhŒƒv(Prosper Alpinus: De medicina aegyptiorum. Lugduni Batavorum, 1745, p. 218A•MŽŇ‘ )

 

čI‚̐ź‘Q

ă‚ɏq‚ׂ˝’Ę‚č“ú•’Œđ—ŹŽž‘ă‚̐鋳Žt‚́AčIp‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä‘Š“–‚Č’mŽŻ‚đŽ‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚˝B‚ľ‚Š‚ľ”Ţ‚ç‚Ě‹Lq‚Ě‚Ů‚Ć‚ń‚Ç‚Í’Z‚­A‘ŠČA”N•ńAŽŤ‘‚Č‚Ç‘˝Ží‘˝—l‚Č”}‘Ě‚É•ŞŽU‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚̂ŁAƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Ĺ‚Ě”˝‰ž‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝BčIp‚ވăŽt‚ĚÚ×‚Č‹c˜_‚Ě‘ÎŰ‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝‚Ě‚Í‚P‚V˘‹IŒă”ź‚Ě‚ą‚Ć‚Ĺ‚ ‚Á‚˝B‚ť‚ĚŰ‚ŕ“ú–{‚̉ʂ˝‚ľ‚˝–đŠ„‚ÍŒˆ’č“I‚Č‚ŕ‚Ě‚ž‚Á‚˝BĹ‚ŕŒĂ‚˘‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ć‚ł‚ę‚é”M‘ŃˆăŠw‚̐ć‹ěŽŇƒ{ƒ“ƒgiJacob de Bondt, 1599-1631j‚Ě’Z‚˘Œž‹y‚͉˝‚ĚƒCƒ“ƒpƒNƒg‚ŕ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝‚ށA‚P‚U‚V‚T”N‚É—ˆ“ú‚ľ‚˝“ŕ‰Čˆăƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl”ŽŽmiWilhelm ten Rhijne, 1647-1700j‚́Aˆę‹C‚Ƀˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚̊֐S‚đŒÄ‚Ń‹N‚ą‚ľ‚˝B

ƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚Í“ú–{‚Őź—mˆăŠw‚đ‹ł‚Ś‚é‚˝‚ß‚É‘I‚΂ꂽŽá‚ŤGË‚Ĺ‚ ‚Á‚˝Bƒoƒ^ƒrƒA‚Ě–qŽtƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚ĚˆË—Š‚ŕ‚ ‚čA—ˆ“úŒăAĎ‹É“I‚ÉčI‹„‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä’˛¸‚ľAŠeŽíjA“ú–{‚̐}”Ĺ‹y‚щ¤ˆŇˆę‚́w“şl腧ŒŠčI‹„}Œox‚đ“üŽč‚ľ‚˝B‘•¨‚Ě“ŕ—e‚ɂ‚˘‚āAˆ˘—–‘É’ĘŽŒŠâ‰i@ŒĂ‚Ć–{–؏Ż‘ž•v—ÇˆÓ‚Ě‹Ś—Í‚đ“ž‚˝‚ށA“ńl‚̓Iƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œę‚ć‚č‚ŕƒ|ƒ‹ƒgƒKƒ‹Œę‚Ş“žˆÓ‚ž‚Á‚˝‚˝‚߁A‘•¨‚Ě“ŕ—e‚Ě”cˆŹ‚͋ɂ߂袓‚Á‚˝B‘˝­‚Ě‹^–â‚Ć•sˆŔ‚đ•ř‚Ś‚Č‚Ş‚ç‚ŕAƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚Í‚P‚U‚W‚Q”N‚Ƀƒ“ƒhƒ“‚Ĺ”­•\‚ľ‚˝˜_•śW‚É“ú–{‹y‚Ń’†‘‚ĚŒo—}‚Ć‚ť‚Ěŕ–ž‹y‚сw“şl腧ŒŠčI‹„}Œox‚ĚĐ‰î‚đÚ‚š‚˝B‚ą‚ą‚Ŕނ́ujviacusj‚ƁuŽh‚ˇ‚ą‚Ɓvipuncturaj‚đ‘g‚ݍ‡‚í‚šAuAcupuncturav‚Ć‚˘‚¤–óŒę‚đ’ńˆÄ‚ľ‚˝B

 

FIG 04

}‚S@uColicaviál’Ɂj—p‚ĚŒŠBƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚Ş“ú–{‚Ĺ•`‚˘‚˝ƒXƒPƒbƒ`iBritish LibraryASloane Collection no. 3062j

 

“ŕ—e‚Í•K‚¸‚ľ‚ŕ‚ć‚­Ž—‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚Í‚˘‚Č‚˘‚ށAƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚͏pŽŽ‚Ć‚ľ‚āA’Pƒ‚ČŽh“üAeŽw‚Ɛlˇ‚ľŽw‚̐ć‚ʼnń‚ˇ•ű–@‹y‚ѐj‚đŹ’Ć‚ĹŒy‚­‚˝‚˝‚˘‚ÄŽh‚ľ“ü‚ę‚é•ű–@‚đĐ‰î‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚éB‘OŽŇ‚Ě“ń‚‚͒†‘“`—ˆ‚Ě‹Z–@‚Éˆá‚˘‚Č‚˘‚ށAŒăŽŇ‚Í’†‘‚É‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝‘ĹčI–@‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB“ú–{‚Š‚玝‚ż‹A‚Á‚˝‹ŕj‚ƏŹ’Ć‚Ě“ş”ʼnć‚ŕ‚ ‚é‚ŞAƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚͌䉒ˆÓÖ‚Ć‚ť‚Ě“Ć“Á‚Č”­‘z‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä‚Í’m‚ç‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝‚悤‚žBw“şl腧ŒŠčI‹„}Œox‚̉đŕ‚ɂ́Ao“‡‚Ĺ‚Ě–Ŕ‚˘‚â‹ę”Y‚Ş•\‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚éBuŒo—v‚́u•—vEu•—‹Cviflatusj‚âu—ě‹Cv(spiritus vitales)‚ޏzŠÂ‚ˇ‚éĂ–Ź‚Ć“Ž–Źivenae et arteriaej‚Ć‚ł‚ęAu‰A—zv‚ÍŒĂ‘ăƒMƒŠƒVƒƒEƒ[ƒ}‚̑̉t•a—Šw‚ޏĽ‚Ś‚˝uŞŒł‚ĚŽź‹Cvihumidum radicalej‚Ɓuć“VŤ‚̉ˇ”Mvicalidum innatumj‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚éBu•—v‚𔲂­Œ‡isignaj‚ĆŠł•”ilocus dolendij‚Ć‚ĚŠÖŒW‚ŕAƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚đ‘傢‚É”Y‚Ü‚š‚˝B‚ą‚Ě’˜‘‚́uAcupuncturav‚𐟗m‚ĚŠeŒžŒę‚ɍޕt‚Š‚š‚˝‚ŕ‚̂́A“ú–{l‚Ć’†‘l‚Í—‰đ‚ľ“ď‚­Šď–­‚ČŽĄ—Ă‚đs‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚é‚Ć‚˘‚¤ƒCƒ[ƒW‚ŕ’č’…‚ł‚š‚˝B

ƒoƒ^ƒrƒA‚Ĺƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚Əo‰ď‚Á‚˝ƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚́A’†‘‚Ěˆă‘‚đ“üŽč‚Ĺ‚Ť‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝‚É‚ŕ‚Š‚Š‚í‚炸A—DG‚Č•”‰ŽŹŽgEĄ‘şŒš‰E‰q–ĺ‰pś‚âˆăŠw‚ɏڂľ‚˘‘ĺ’ĘŽŒ“č—Ń’ÁŽR‚Ě‹Ś—Í‚đ“ž‚˝‚ą‚ƂŁA‹ď‘Ě“I‚ČŽĄ—Ă•ű–@‚đÚ×‚Éŕ–ž‚Ĺ‚Ť‚é‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝BƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚ŕAg‘Ě‚Ě‚Ç‚ĚŒÂŠ‚ɐj‚đŽh‚ˇ‚ׂŤ‚Š‚Ć‚˘‚¤–â‘č‚́Au“ú–{ŠO‰ČŠw‚Ě“Á•Ę‚Č•Ş–ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚čvAčIp‚Ě‹K‘Ľ‚Í”ńí‚É‘˝—l‚ŁA•aˆö‚É‚Č‚éu•—v‚Ć“ÁˆŮ‚ČŠÖŒW‚Ş‚ ‚éA‚Əq‚ׂâ‚éB

čI‚ĚŽ{p–@‚ÉŠÖ‚ľ‚ăPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚͐}”Ĺ‚đ“Ľ‚Ü‚Ś‚Č‚Ş‚ç”PčI–@‚Ć‘ĹčI–@‚ɉÁ‚Ś‚āA™ŽR˜aˆęi1610-1694j‚ލlˆÄ‚ľ‚˝ŠÇčI–@‚ŕ‰‚ß‚ÄĐ‰î‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚éBƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚ÍčIp‚̉ž—p”͈͂đŠČ’P‚É—ń‹“‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚éF“ޒɁA‚ß‚Ü‚˘A”’“ŕáA‹śŒ˘•aA‹š‚Ć”w’†‚Ě’Ł‚čA_Œo‚ĚŽűkA‚Ä‚ń‚Š‚ńA•@•—Ž×‚ĆƒŠƒ…[ƒ}ƒ`AŠÔŒ‡”M‚Ć–Ť‚Ě”­”MAS‹CÇAŸT•aAÔ—ŸAƒRƒŒƒ‰Aál’ɁA“ŕ‘Ÿ‚Ě•—‚É‚ć‚é‚ť‚Ě‘ź‚Ě•a‹CAáΊێAŠÖß‰ŠA—Ň•aB‚ą‚ę‚ɑ΂ľ‚ăPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚́A]ŒËŠú‚Ě“ú–{‚Ĺ‚ć‚­f’f‚ł‚ę‚˝uál‹Cv‚𒆐S‚ɏq‚ׂâ‚éB• •”‚É’â‘Ř‚ˇ‚éu‹Cv‚đu•—v(flatus)‚ĆŒŠ‚Č‚ľA•a–ź‚Ć‚ľ‚āuColicaviál’Ɂj‚Ć‚ĚŠÖ˜A‚Ă‚Ż‚ÉŽŠ‚Á‚˝ƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚́A‚ť‚ę‚đŽć‚čœ‚­‚˝‚ß‚É• ‚̏ă‚Ě‚XŒŠ‚đĐ‰î‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚éB‚ą‚ę‚ÍŒo—‚đdŽ‹‚ˇ‚éˆăŠw‚Ĺ‚Í‚Č‚­A‰i“c“ż–{i1512-1630”Nj‚Ě”­‘z‚đŽv‚í‚š‚鎥•ű‚̂悤‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB“ú–{‚Ĺ•`‚˘‚˝ƒXƒPƒbƒ`‚Ĺ‚ÍŽĄ—Ă—p‚ĚŒŠ‚Ć˜]œ‚މ˝–{‚Š‚ľ‚ŠŒŠ‚ç‚ę‚Č‚˘‚ށi}‚SjAŠwŽŇŒü‚Ż‚́w‰ô‘ŠďŠĎx‹y‚сw“ú–{Žx‚ł́AF‹C–žX‚́u“ú–{l—Ťv‚Ş‚ť‚Ě”ź—‡‚̐g‘Ě‚đ‹­’˛‚ˇ‚é‚悤‚É•`‚Š‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚éi}‚TjB

ƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚Ćƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚Ě˜_•ś‚É‚ć‚čAčIp‚̓ˆ[ƒƒbƒpl‚ɍL‚­’m‚ç‚ę‚é‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝Bo“‡¤ŠŮ‚É‚Í–ˆ”NˆăŽt‚Ş—ˆ‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚ށA‹ß‘㐟—mˆăŠw‚ĚŽ‹“_‚Š‚çčI‹„‚đŠĎŽ@‚ľ‚˝ƒtƒHƒ“EƒV[ƒ{ƒ‹ƒgiPhilipp Franz von Siebold, 1796-1866j‚Ě—ˆ“ú‚܂ł́Aƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚ĆƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚đ‰z‚Ś‚éŽűŠn‚đ“ž‚˝‚ŕ‚Ě‚Í‚˘‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝B‚˝‚žA–@Šw”ŽŽm‚Ĺ‚P‚V‚V‚X”N‚Š‚ç‚R“x‚ŕo“‡¤ŠŮ’ˇ‚𖹂߁A‘‡“I‚Č“ú–{Œ¤‹†‚đ–ÚŽw‚ľ‚˝ƒeƒBƒcƒBƒ“ƒOiIsaac Titsingh, 1745-1812j‚ĚŠˆ–ô‚ÍŰ—§‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚éB”Ţ‚Í‹ž“s‚Ĺ–Ř‘ş‘ž’‡•ŇwčI‹„‹É”鏴xiˆŔ‰i‚X”NŠ§j‚đ“üŽč‚ľAo“‡‚Ěˆ˘—–‘É’ĘŽŒ‚Ě‹Ś—͂ŁA‚ą‚̉i“c“ż–{—Ź‚ƉŹ–ěŒłŠM‚ĚŽh—‚Č‚Ç‚đ‘g‚ݍ‡‚š‚˝Ü’“I‚Č’˜ě‚ĚƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œę–ó‚đŽ‚ż‹A‚Á‚˝B‚ľ‚Š‚ľA‚ą‚Ě•ś‘‚Í‚P‚X˘‹I‚É“ü‚Á‚Ä‚Š‚çA‚ť‚ę‚Ü‚Ĺ‚Ć‘S‚­ˆá‚¤•ś–Ź‚Ĺ—˜—p‚ł‚ę‚˝‚˝‚߁A‚ą‚ą‚Ĺ‚ÍŠ„ˆ¤‚ˇ‚é[57]B

FIG 05

}‚T@ƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹w“ú–{Žx‚ÉŒŠ‚ç‚ę‚éŠÇjA‘Őj‹y‚сuál’Ɂv‚́uŽĄ—Ă“_viEngelbert Kaempfer: The History of Japan, 1727A•MŽŇ‘ j

 

•Ş‚Š‚ę‚é•]‰ż

“ú–{‚Ě—–ŠwŽŇ‚Ć“Ż—l‚ɁA—ˆ“ú‚ľ‚˝ƒˆ[ƒƒbƒplˆăŽt‚ŕŒž—t‚Ć’mŽŻ•s‘Ť‚Ě•Ç‚É‘j‚Ü‚ęA‘ŠŽč‚̐l‘ĚŠĎ‚â•a—Šw‚đ’f•Đ“I‚É‚ľ‚Š”cˆŹ‚Ĺ‚Ť‚Č‚Š‚Á‚˝B‚ť‚ę‚Ĺ‚ŕA‚P‚V˘‹I‚Ě‹c˜_‚đ‘Š‡‚ľ‚˝ƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚́A‘ĺ•ĎDˆÓ“I‚ČŒ‹˜_‚đ“ą‚Ťo‚ľ‚˝B

u“ú–{l‚͉äX‚ĚŠO‰Č‚ć‚č‚ŕ“ŕ‰Č‚Ě•ű‚đ‚ć‚­’m‚Á‚Ä‚˘‚éBˆăŽŇ‚Í•al‚É‘˝—Ę‚Ě–ň‚đ—^‚Ś‚ť‚Ě‘Ě—Í‚đÁ–Ő‚ł‚š‚é‚悤‚Č‚ą‚Ć‚Í‚ľ‚Č‚˘B”Ţ‚ç‚Í‚Ţ‚ľ‚ë•a‹C‚ĚŞŒłi‚ť‚ę‚Í’âÇ‚ž‚ƐM‚ś‚Ä‚˘‚éj‚Ć’É‚Ý‚ĚŒ´Žżi”Ţ‚ç‚Í‚ť‚ę‚đ•Â‚ś‚ą‚ŕ‚Á‚˝•—‹C‚ĆŒÄ‚Ôj‚đAŠO•”‚Š‚ç‚ĚŽ{—ÁA‘Ś‚żčI‚Ć‹„‚É‚ć‚Á‚Ä‹ěœ‚ľ‚悤‚Ć‚ˇ‚éB“ú–{l‚Í–ˆ“ú‰Ć‚Ĺ“ü—‚ľ‚Đg‘Ě‚đô‚˘´‚ß‚é‚ŞA‚ą‚Ě“ü—‚É‚ć‚Á‚Đ}‚炸‚ŕ”X‚Ě•a‹C‚đ–Ć‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚éB‚ą‚̍‘‚É‚Í“ÁŒř‚Ě‚ ‚鉡ň‚ŞŽŠ‚鏊‚É‚ ‚é‚ŞA”Ţ‚ç‚ÍŽč‘Ť‚Ě–ƒáƒ‚ľ‚˝•al‚đA‰äX‚Ě‚â‚č•ű‚Ć“Ż‚ś‚悤‚ɉˇň‚É‘—‚Á‚Ä“’ŽĄ‚ł‚š‚éBv[58]

ź—mˆăŠw‚ɑ΂ˇ‚éƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚Ě‹^–â‚́A”Ţ‚Ě‹„p‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚é‹Lq‚ɁA‚ć‚č–ž”’‚É•\‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚éB‹ť–Ą[‚˘‚ą‚ƂɁA”Ţ‚ÍčI‹„‚đŠO‰ČŽĄ—Ă–@‚Ć‚ľ‚ÄŽ]‚Ś‚Ä‚˘‚éB

u“ú–{‚É‚ÍŒ’N‚đˆŰŽ‚ľ‰ń•œ‚ˇ‚éŽĺ–ň‚Č‚˘‚ľ–œ”\–ň‚Ć‚ŕ‚˘‚¤‚ׂŤ‚Q‚‚̊O‰Č“I•ű–@‚Ş‚ ‚ém’†—ށn ‚ą‚Ě—Ă–@‚ĚŽč’i‚ÉŽg‚í‚ę‚é‚Ě‚Í‰Î‚Ć‹ŕ‘Ž‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB‰Î‚Ć‹ŕ‘Ž‚ĆŒž‚Ś‚΁A‰˝‚Š•¨‘›‚É•ˇ‚Ś‚é‚ŞAŽŔ‚͉äX‚̐ź—m‚Ě—–\‚ČŠO‰Čˆă‚ސlŠÔ‚đ’Ž‚Ż‚ç“Ż—l‚ÉŽćˆľ‚Á‚ĤS‚ ‚élX‚Ě‚Đ‚ń‚ľ‚ă‚­‚đ”ƒ‚Á‚˝‹°‚ë‚ľ‚˘“÷Ř•ď’š‚âÄŹŽč‚Ě‚ą‚Ć‚Ĺ‚Í‚Č‚˘B“ú–{‚Ěˆăp‚Ĺ—p‚˘‚é‰Î‚́A‚ą‚̍‘‚̐_X‚Ě‘O‚Ĺ•°‚­‰Î‚̂悤‚Č‚ˇ‚ą‚Ô‚é‰Âˆ¤‚ç‚ľ‚˘‚ŕ‚̂ŁAƒˆƒ‚ƒM‚Ě‘@ˆŰ‚đ”Q‚Á‚˝‚ŕ‚Ě‚É_‚ç‚Š‚­‰Î‚މń‚é‹„‚Ć‚˘‚¤‚ŕ‚Ě‚Č‚Ě‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB‚ŕ‚¤ˆę‚‚̗Ö@‚É—p‚˘‚ç‚ę‚é‹ŕ‘Ž‚́A‚ŕ‚Á‚Ć‚ŕ‹Md‚Č‹ŕ‘Ž‚ˇ‚Č‚í‚ż‹ŕ‚Ć‹â‚Ĺ‚ ‚éBv[59]

”wŒi•s–ž‚Ěˆăp‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚é—lX‚Č•ń‚đ“Ç‚ŢˆăŽt’B‚́Aź—m‚Ě“`“‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é—ŢŽ—‚Ě‚ŕ‚Ě‚đŽčŠ|‚Š‚č‚É‚ť‚Ě—L—pŤ‚ĚŒŸ“˘‚đŽŽ‚Ý‚˝B‹„p‚Ěę‡‚́A‚ť‚̂悤‚Č—ŢŽ—‚Ě‚ŕ‚Ě‚Ş\•Ş‚É‚ ‚Á‚˝‚̂ŁA“ú–{‚́uMoxav‚Í“éő‚݂₡‚­AŒo—‚â‹„ŒŠ‚Ȃǂ𖳎‹‚ľ‚˝Œ`‚ŁuMoxav‚͐V‚ľ‚˘ŽĄ—Ă–ň‚Ć‚ľ‚ÄŽó‚Ż“ü‚ę‚ç‚ęAˆę’č‚Ě•]‰ż‚đŠl“ž‚Ĺ‚Ť‚˝B

‚ť‚ę‚ɑ΂ľAčIŽĄ—Âɑ΂ˇ‚é”˝‰ž‚͉ů‹^“I‚Č‚ŕ‚Ě‚ž‚Á‚˝BƒnƒCƒXƒ^[‹łŽöiLorenz Heister, 1683-1758j‚âƒXƒ^[ƒ‹‹łŽöiGeorg Ernst Stahl, 1659-1734j‚đ‚Í‚ś‚߁Aƒeƒ“Eƒ‰ƒCƒl‚ĆƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚ĚŒë‰đ‚ľ‚₡‚˘‹Lq‚đ“Ç‚ń‚žŠwŽŇ‚Ě‘˝‚­‚́A’â‘Ř‚ˇ‚éu•—vAu•—‹Cv‚đ’°“ŕƒKƒX‚ĆŒŠ‚Č‚ľA“ú–{‚Ć’†‘‚ĚˆăŽt‚Í‚ť‚ę‚𔲂­‚˝‚ß‚É• •”‚ɐj‚đŽh‚ˇ‚ĆŠ¨ˆá‚˘‚ľ‚Ä‚ľ‚Ü‚Á‚˝B‚ą‚̂悤‚ČŠłŽŇ‚Ě–˝‚đ‹ş‚Š‚ˇsˆ×‚Í“–‘RŒľ‚ľ‚˘”˝”­‚đľ‚˘‚˝B’˜–ź‚Č‘ĺŠw‹łŽö‚É‚ć‚鍓•]‚́AƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚ĚŽó—e‹y‚Ń‚ť‚ęˆČ~‚ĚŒ¤‹†‚É‹­‚˘‰e‹ż‚đ‹y‚ľ‚˝B‚P‚W˘‹I‚̐ź—mˆăŠw‚Ě”ň–ô“I‚Ȑi•ŕ‚É‚ć‚čA“Œ—m‚ĚˆăŠw‚ɑ΂ˇ‚é‹ť–Ą‚Í‚ł‚ç‚É”–‚ęA‚ą‚Ě’á–Ŕ‚́A_Œo‹y‚Ń“d‹CŽhŒƒ‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚錤‹†‚ސˇ‚ń‚É‚Č‚é‚P‚X˘‹I‰“Ş‚Ü‚Ĺ‘ą‚˘‚˝B

 

 

’Žß

[1]   w‰ô‘ŠďŠĎxi‚P‚V‚P‚Q”Nj‹y‚сw“ú–{Žxi‚P‚V‚Q‚V”NjBL‚­•‹y‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝ƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚Ě‚˘‚í‚ä‚éu˝‘˜_v‚́A‚ť‚ĚĹ‚ŕ—L–ź‚ČŽ–—á‚Ĺ‚ ‚éBEngelbert Kaempfer: Amoenitates Exoticae. Lemgo, 1712, p. 490.
[2]   ˜DŒj’żAƒWƒ‡ƒZƒtEƒj[ƒ_ƒ€’˜A‹´–{Œh‘˘A‹{‰şŽO˜Y–ów’†‘‚Ěƒ‰ƒ“ƒZƒbƒg ― j‹„‚Ě—đŽj‚Ć—˜_x‘ĺăA‘nŒłŽĐA1989”NB
[3]   Wolfgang Michel: Japans Rolle in der frühen Vermittlung der Akupunktur nach Europa. In: Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur, Vol. 36, No. 2 (1993), pp. 40 - 46. ˆČ‰ş‚ÍMichel (1993a)B
[4]   “ú–{‹y‚Ń’†‘‚É‚¨‚Ż‚éƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ďŽm‚É‚ć‚éˆăŠwŒ¤‹†‚ɂ‚˘‚Ă͉ş‹L‚Ě˜_•ś‚đŽQĆFWolfgang Michel: Frühe westliche Beobachtungen zur Akupunktur und Moxibustion. In: Sudhoffs Archiv, Vol. 77, No. 2 (Stuttgart 1993), pp.194-222. ˆČ‰ş‚ÍMichel (1993b)
[5]   ƒLƒŠƒVƒ^ƒ“‚Ěˆă—ÁA•ŰŒěŽ–‹Ć‚Ȃǂɂ‚˘‚Ä‚ÍŠC˜V‘ň—L“šwŘŽx’O‚̎Љď‰^“Ž‹y“ě”ŘˆăŠwxi•yŽR–[A1944”NjŽQĆBƒCƒGƒYƒX‰ďŽm‚Ě‘˝‚­‚̏‘ŠČ‚Í‚P‚T‚X‚T”N‚ÉŠ§s‚ł‚ę‚˝‘ŠČWiCartasj‚ōL‚­’m‚ç‚ę‚é‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚˝BCartas qve os Padres e Irmãos da Companhia de Jesus escreuerão dos Reynos de Iapão & China. Euora: Manoel de Lyra, 1598 (ˆČ‰ş‚ÍCartas), Livro I, fol. 51, 52, 56, 62, 64.
[6]   Cartas, I, fol. 62.
[7]   Carol Dealey: German Wound Surgeons 1450-1750. EWMA Journal, Vol. 5 (2005), No.2, pp. 48-51.
[8]   Heinrich Haeser: Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Medizin. Gustav Fischer, Jena 1881, pp.145ff.; Max Neuburger, Julius Pagel: Handbuch der Geschichte der Medizin. Vol. 3, Jena 1905, pp.17ff.; Ambroise Paré: La methode de traicter les playes faictes par hacquebute et aultres bastons à feu. Paris 1545.i‰Î“ęe‚â‚ť‚Ě‘ź‚̉Ίí‚É‚ć‚é‘n‚ĚŽĄ—Ă–@j
[9]   Cartas, I, fol. 64, 110, 63.
Luis Frois: Die Geschichte Japans (1549-1578). Übersetzt und kommentiert von G. Schurhammer und E. A. Voretzsch. Verlag der Asia Major, Leipzig 1926, p.58. ˆČ~‚ÍFrois (1584/1926).
[10]   Dorotheus Schilling: Das Schulwesen der Jesuiten in Japan (1551-1614). Regensberg, Münster 1931, pp. 63f.
[11]   Schilling (1931), p. 87.
[12]   Cartas, I, fol. 30, 98, 216v.
[13]   ˘“ƒ‚Ě•ô‚ĚƒLƒ‡ƒEƒ[ƒ“Ł‚́AYofoiƒˆ[ƒz[j‚ ‚邢‚ÍYofogen Paoloiƒˆ[ƒz[ƒ[ƒ“EƒpƒIƒj‚Ć‚˘‚¤–ź‚ĹŒž‹y‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚é‹Lq‚ŕ‚ ‚éB
[14]   Cartas, I, fol. 64v.
[15]   Cartas, I, fol. 56, 62v, 77; Frois (1584/1926), p. 63.
[16]   Cartas, I, fol. 72v. Jesuitas na Asia (Biblioteca de Ajuda, Lisbon). Codex 49-VI-8. Photographic reproduction in album form. Tokyo, Ikubundo, c. 1931, fol. 128v.
[17]   Frois (1584/1926), pp. 292-293.
[18]   Cartas, I, fol. 64.
[19]   Vocabvlario da lingoa de Iapam com Adeclaraçao em Portugues. Nagasaki 1603. i‰eˆó–{F“ú•’ŽŤ‘. •×˝ŽĐ. 1973j
[20]   Cartas, I, fol. 64v.
[21]   Cartas, I, fol. 77; Frois (1584/1926), p. 295.
[22]   Ú×‚ɂ‚˘‚ẮAMichel (1993b)ŽQĆBŽc”O‚Č‚Ş‚çA‚ť‚ĚŽˇ•M‚É“–‚˝‚Á‚˝é‹łŽt‚ÍŒă‚̐ź—m‚ĚŒ¤‹†ŽŇ‚˝‚ż‚Ć“Ż—l‚ɁAu‹C‚Ě’Ę‚č“šv‚Ĺ‚ ‚éŒo—‚đuĂ–Źv‚ž‚ĆŒë‰đ‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚˝‚悤‚Ĺ‚ ‚éB
[23]   Vocabulario (1603): “Suncô. Certo lugar onde se toma o pulso, que responde ao primeiro dos tres dedos que he odice com que os Chinas, &Iapões tomão o pulso.”; “Quanjǒ. Hum certo pulso, de que tratão os medicos.”; “Xacuchǔ. Hũa parte do pulso que responde ao dedo medicinal, que he o que està junto do meimiubo, quando se toma com tres dedos, como custumão os Chinas, & Iapões.”; “Fumiacu. Pulso que se sente logo em se sonãdo.”; “Chinmiacu. Xizzumu miacu. Pulso escaço, & fraco.”; “Iinmiacu. Pulso que responde aos rins.”; “Xogofuchin [...] Cada sillaba destas he nome de hũa maneira de pulso conforme aos quatro tempos do anno. Xô he o pulso da prima vera. Gǒ, Do Outono. Fu, He do estio. Chin, O do inuerno.”;“Quatmiacu. Certo Pulso.”; “Ximiacu. Pulso de quem està pera morrer, ou vizinho à morte.”; “Ximeacu. Pulso de que està pera morrer, ou intercadente.”;“Xinmiacu. Pulso que vem do coração. Item, O tomar, & ver o pulso. S.”
[24]   Vocabulario (1603): “Zzuqiô. Liuro de anotomia dos fisicos pera saberem as veas, & partes do corpo.”; “Zzubôxi. Pintura que mostra distintamente as partes do corpo pera aprender a curar.”;“Gozǒ. Cinco partes que ha nas antranhas. v.g. Can, l, cannozǒ. Baço. Xin, l, xinnozǒ. Coração. Fi, l, finozǒ. Figado [...] Fai, l, fainozǒ. Bofes. Iin, l, jinnozǒ. Rins.”; “Roppu. Seis partes, ou lugares nas entranhas, & corpo do animal. S. Daichǒ, Xôchǒ, Bǒquǒ, Sanxô, Y, Tan: cuja significação se veja em seus lugares. Item, Se diz, Daichǒno fu. Xǒchǒno fu, &c.”; “Iǔniqei. Doze veas que ha nos pès, & nas mãos de que falão os medicos. Vt, Iǔniqei, jǔgoracu. Vide Iǔgoracu.”; “Iugoracu. Quinze veas, Vt, Iǔniqei jǔgoracu. 12. & 15. veas do corpo de que falão os medicos.”; “Sanxô. Tres partes do corpo. S.Iǒxô, Chǔxô, Guexô. Partes superiores do peito pera cima, partes do meo, & partes inferiores.”; “Iǒxô. As partes superiores do corpo como cabeça, & pescoço.”; “Chǔxô. O espaço que ha do peito ate a cintura.”; “Guexô. Partes inferiores do corpo. Vt, Guexôno fiyeta. Esfriarãose as partes de baixo. Iǒxô. As partes de cima como cabeça, &c. Chǔxô. As partes do meo como barriga, &c.”; “Qi. Coração, espiritos vitaes, ou vigor do coração.”; “Iaqi. Yocoxima no qi. Bafo ruim, ou pestilence. S. Iaqi aru. Auer algũa doença contagiosa, como peste, ou vento pestifero. Iaqiga tachisaru. Acabarse este vento ruim, ou doença contagiosa, ou de ruim bafo. S.”; “ Fiacuye. Certo lugar no cume da cabeça, onde se dam botoens de fogo de Iapão.”; “Ietcot. Certo lugar dos pees onde se dão botões de fogo.”; “Qigai. Certo lugar nos lombos, ou cadeiras onde os Iapões dam seus botões de fogo.”; “Sanri. Certo lugar a baxo dos joelhos onde se dão botões de fogo na canela da perna.”; “Yu. Certos lugares ao lõgo do espinhaço onde se dão botões de fogo.”
[25]   Vocabulario (1603): “Fari. Agulha, ou lanceta. Fariuo fineru. Meter certas agulhas, ou alfenetes por algũas partes do corpo por mezinha. Fariuo tçucǒ. Dar lancetada como quando sangraõ cavalos.”;“Farisuri. O que faz as agulhas de que usam os Iapões pera dar agulhadas em certos lugares do corpo por causa de algũa doença.”;“Farifineri. O que da agulhadas a alguns doentes com certas agulhas de ouro, ou prata por mezinha.”; “Faritate. O que da agulhadas com certas agulhas a alguns doentes conforme ao costume de Iapam.”; “Guinxin. Xiroganeno fari. Agulha de prata. Vt. Guinxinuo fineru. Meter a agulha de prata na carne torcendoa.”; “Qinxin. Coganeno fari. Hũa laya de agulhas de ouro, de que usam os Iapões por mezinha.”; “Vchibari. Agulha que se mete no corpo batendo. Vchibariuo vtçu. Meter esta agulha assi.”; “Tomebari. Agulha que se mete em certa parte do corpo pera impedir as camaras. Tomebariuo tatçuru. Dar esta agulhada.”;“Firabari. [...] Item, Firabari. Lanceta de sangrar caualos, ou homẽs. Vt, Firabariuo tatçuru. Dar lançetada pera tirar sangue.”
[26]   Vocabulario (1603): “Qiǔgi. i, Yaitô, l, yaifi. Botoẽs de fogo. Qiǔgi suru. Dar botoẽs de fogo.”; “Yaitô. Botão de fogo que se da com certa erua seca: posto que a propria palaura he Qiǔgi.”; “Suye, yuru, eta. [...] Yaitôuo suyuru. Dar botoẽs de fogo.”; “Cauarayomogui. Certa erua medicinal. Cauaqiri. O primeiro botão de fogodos de Iapão que se dà, ou a primeira agulhada das que se dão por mezinha.
[27]   Vocabulario (1603): “Chizaxi. O sangrar caualos. Vt, Vmano chizaxiuo suru.”; “Idaxi, su, aita. [...] Susono chiuo idasu. Sangrar caualos, &c.”; “Tori, ru, otta. Tomar. [...] Chiuo toru. Sangrar: particularmente se diz de caualos.”; “Chi. Sangue. [...] Chiuo idasu. Tirar, ou botar sangue, ou sangrar. Vt, Vmano susono chiuo idasu, l, toru. Sangrar os caualos nos pees.”;“Tçucuroi, rô, ôta. [...] Vmauo tçucurô. Sangrar os caualos, cortar lhesas unhas, & curalos para que não se danem os pès &c.”; “ Faritçucai. O sangrar bestas. Vt, Faritçucaiuo itasu.”
[28]   Vocabulario (1603): “Chinsǒ. Certo pulso que tem o cauallo na barriga.; Quacuyû. Certo pulso que se toma na barriga ao cauallo.”;“Cotçudǒ. Certo pulso que se toma ao cauallo na barriga.”; “Nhumiacu. Pulso que se toma na barriga do cauallo.”;“Taimiacu. Certo lugar na barriga do cauallo onde lhe dao agulhadas por mezinha, quando està doente.”; “Qiû. Certo modo de botam de fogo de que às vezes usam os Iapões em curar os cauallos.”
[29]   –óŽŇSchütte‚ÍŒ´•ś‚Ěfrialdade‚đRheumatismus‚ĆŒë‰đ‚ľ‚Ä‚˘‚éB
[30]   Frois (1584/1926), p. 9.
[31]   Luís Fróis. Kulturgegensätze Europa-Japan (1585) - Tratado em que se contem Muito susintae abreviadamente algumas contradições e diferenças de custumes antre a gente de Europa e esta provincia de Japão. Erstmalige, kritische Ausgabe, von Josef Franz Schütte. Tokyo, Sophia Universität, 1955. ƒ‹ƒCƒXEƒtƒƒCƒXwƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp•ś‰ť‚Ć“ú–{•ś‰ťxi‰Ş“cÍ—Y–󒍁AŠâ”g•śŒÉA1991”Njpp.131`138.
[32]   Schilling (1931), p. 65.
[33]   Victor Bernardin de Rouen: Histoire universelle des missions Franciscains. Tome II. Paris, 1899.
[34]   Cartas II, fol. 237v.
[35]   Lettera Del Giappone De Gli Anni 1591. Et 1592. Scritta al R.P. Generale Della Compagnia de Giesv. Milano, 1595, p.113.
[36]   Wolfgang Michel: Medicine and Allied Sciences in the Cultural Exchange between Japan and Europe in the Seventeenth Century. In: Hans Dieter Ölschleger (ed): Theories and Methods in Japanese Studies: Current State & Future Developments - Papers in Honor of Josef Kreiner. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Unipress, Göttingen, 2007, pp. 285-302.
[37]   ƒ”ƒHƒ‹ƒtƒKƒ“ƒOEƒ~ƒqƒFƒ‹uƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚ÉMoxai‚Ţ‚Ž‚łj‚đĐ‰î‚ľ‚˝ƒoƒ^ƒrƒA‚Ě–qŽtƒwƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“EƒuƒVƒ‡ƒt‚̐śŠU‚Ć’˜ě‚ɂ‚˘‚āvw“ú—–Šw‰ď‰ďŽx‘ć‚Q‚RŠŞ‘ć‚P†i‚P‚X‚X‚W”NjA‚S‚V~‚U‚R•ĹB
[38]   Het Podagra, nader als oyt nagevorst en uytgevonden, midsgaders des selfs sekere Genesingh of ontlastend Hulp-Mittel. Door Hermanus Busschof de Oude van Utrecht, Predikant op Batavia in Oost-Indien. ’t Amsterdam, By Jacobus de Jonge, 1675.iˆČ‰ş‚ÍBuschof (1675)j
[39]   Two Treatises, The one, Medical, Of the Gout, And its Nature more narrowly search'd into than hitherto, together with a new way or discharging the same. By Herman Busschof Senior, of Utrecht, residing at Batavia in the East-Indies, in the service of the Dutch East-Indian Company. London: Printed by H.C. 1676. ˜a•ś‰đŕ•t‚ĚÄ”ĹFƒ”ƒHƒ‹ƒtƒKƒ“ƒOEƒ~ƒqƒFƒ‹•Ň’˜uƒwƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“EƒuƒVƒ‡ƒtF’É•—‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚éÚ×‚ČŒ¤‹†‹y‚Ń‚ť‚ĚŠmŽŔ‚ČŽĄ—Ă–@‚ĆŒř‚Ť–Ú‚Ě‚ ‚é–ňÜ‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä [ ƒˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚É‚¨‚Ż‚é‹„p‚ÉŠÖ‚ˇ‚鏉‚Ě’˜‘i‚P‚U‚V‚T”N‰p•ś”Łjv‹ăB‘ĺŠw‘ĺŠw‰@ŒžŒę•ś‰ťŒ¤‹†‰@‘p‘A‘ć‚R†A•Ÿ‰ŞA‚Q‚O‚O‚R”NB
Das genau untersuchte und auserfundene Podagra, Vermittelst selbst sicher=eigenen Genäsung und erlösenden Hülff=Mittels / Durch Herrmann Busschoof den älteren von Utrecht / zu Neu=Batavien in Ost=Indien wohnhafft / Niederländisch beschrieben / und anietzo ins Deutsche übersetzet von einem aus dem Collegio Naturae Curiosorum. In Verlegung Esaiae Fellgibels / Buchhändlers in Breßlau. Im Jahr 1677. ‰đŕ•t‚ĚÄ”ĹF Erste Abhandlung über die Moxibustion in Europa. Herausgegeben, bearbeitet und kommentiert von Wolfgang Michel. Haug, Heidelberg 1993.
[40]   Matthaei Gotof. Purmanni, Chirurgi und Stadt=Artztes zu Breßlau Herausgegebene Chirurgia Curiosa. Franckfurt / Leipzig, 1699, p.723.
[41]   Rariora Naturae & Artis item in Re Medica, oder Seltenheiten der Natur und Kunst des Kundmannischen Naturalien=Cabinets, wie auch in der Artzeney=Wissenschaft. Überlassen von D. Johann Christian Kundmann, Breslau / Leipzig,1737, 20. Artikel, Col.933.
[42]   Buschof (1675), p.3.
[43]   Buschof (1675), pp.8ff.
[44]   Buschof (1675), pp.36ff.
[45]   Buschof (1675), pp.10-16.
[46]   Buschof (1675), p.13.
[47]   Buschof (1675), p.16.
[48]   Buschof (1675), pp.24f.
[49]   Buschof (1675), p.20.
[50]   Buschof (1675), p.51.
[51]   Buschof (1675), pp.27f.
[52]   ŽŠ‘R‰ČŠwŽŇ‹Ś‰ďLeopoldina‚́u“Œ—mˆăŠwv‚ĚŽó—e‚É‘ĺ‚Ť‚ȉe‹ż‚đ—^‚Ś‚˝B‚ť‚ĚÚ×‚É‚Â‚˘‚Ä‚ÍWolfgang Michel: Far Eastern Medicine in Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Century Germany. Studies in Languages and Cultures (Faculty of Languages and Cultures, Kyushu University), No. 20 (2004), pp. 67-82 ŽQĆB
[53]   “ú–{‘ŘÝŒă‚̏‘ŠČ‚ÉŠÖ‚ľ‚ẮAEin eOstindianisches Sendschreibenf. Andreas Cleyers Brief an Sebastian Scheffer vom 20. Dezember 1683. w“Ć•§•śŠwŒ¤‹†x‘ć‚S‚P†, ‚P‚T~‚X‚W•ĹA‚P‚X‚X‚P”NApp. 15 – 98‚đŽQĆB
[54]   Andreas Cleyer: De Moxa. In: Miscellanea Curiosa, Decuria II, Annus IV, Observatio I (1686).
[55]   “ú–{‚É‚¨‚Ż‚éƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹‚ĚˆăŠw硏‹†‚ɂ‚˘‚Ä‚ÍWolfgang Michel: Engelbert Kaempfer und die Medizin in Japan. In:Detlef Haberland (ed.): Engelbert Kaempfer - Werk und Wirkung. Boethius-Verlag, Stuttgart 1993, pp. 248-293ŽQĆB
[56]   Prospero Alpini: De medicina aegyptiorum. Venetia, 1591.
[57]   Wolfgang Michel: Japansk läkekonst i teckningar av Clas Fredrik Hornstedt. In: C. F. Hornstedt, Brev från Batavia - En resa till Ostindien 1782-1786. Utgivare Christina Granroth under medverkan av Patricia Berg och Maren Jonasson. Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland, Helsingfors Bokförlaget Atlantis, Stockholm, 2008, pp. 117-150.
[58]   Engelbert Kaempfer: Regnum Japoniae optimâ ratione, ab egressu civium & exterarum gentium ingressu & communione clausum (‚ŕ‚Á‚Ć‚ŕ‚Č——R‚Ě‚ ‚é“ú–{‚̍˝‘). In: Amoenitates Exoticae, Lemgo, 1712, p. 490 . ƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹w“ú–{Žx‚Ě•˜^‚ɉp–ó‚ŞŒfÚ‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚éiEngelbert Kaempfer: The History of Japan, 1727, Vol. II, Appendix p. 63j
[59]   Engelbert Kaempfer: Moxa, praestantissima Cauteriorum materia, Sinensibus Japonibusque multùm usitata (’†‘l‹y‚Ń“ú–{‚Ş‚ć‚­—p‚˘‚é‘f°‚ľ‚˘Ä–ňMoxa). In: Amoenitates Exoticae, Lemgo, 1712, p. 589. ƒPƒ“ƒyƒ‹w“ú–{Žx‚Ě•˜^‚ɉp–ó‚ŞŒfÚ‚ł‚ę‚Ä‚˘‚éiEngelbert Kaempfer: The History of Japan, 1727, Vol. II, Appendix p. 34j

 

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