Early Western Mission in China

635Aloben and other Nestorians arrive in Xianfu
635-38First translation of a Christian text into Chinese
638 Foundation of Nestorian monastery in Xianfu
1243Battle of Liegnitz. Polish-German army defeated.
1246The Franciscan friar Giovanni da Piano di Carpine arrives in Karakorum conveying a message from the pope.
1253-55 Wilhelm von Rubruck's journey to the Mongols
1265 Nicolo and Maffeo Polo arrive in Qanbalik (Beijing)
1275 Marco Polo arrives in Qanbalik
1292 Marco Polo leaves China
1294 The Franciscan Giovanni da Montecorvino (1247-1328), envoy of the pope, arrives in Qanbalik. He is received friendly by Timur Chan
1298Marco Polo's story is written down.Church in Qanbalik. Second in 1305, third in 1318.
1303Arnold von Köln arrives in China to assist Giovanni da Montecorvino.
1307 Establishment of Montecorvino as archbishop of Qanbalik.
1303 Establishment of the archdiocese Zaitun (Quanzhou)
1322 Arrival of the Franciscan Odorico da Pordeone (1265-1331) and friar James (from Irland) in Zaitun. Both travel to Beijing. Several years later Odorico travels back to Europe seeking further support for the mission in China. He dies in 1331 in Udine.
1342 Following a request by the Christian Alans at the court in Beijing the Franciscan friar Giovanni da Marignolli comes to China as a papal envoy . But because of the political uncertainties in China he returns back to Rome against the explicit wish of the Chan.
1368 End of Mongolian dynasty in China and end of Franciscan mission. Together with Marco Polo's story the letters and reports of the Franciscans brought many informations about China to Europe.
1521 The Portuguese envoy Tomé Pires arrives in Beijing.
1552 Having tried in vain to enter China Franciscus Xaverius dies on an island near the Chinese coast.
1556 The Dominican Gaspar da Cruz arrives in Kanton.
1557 Beginning of Portuguese settlement in Macao.
1565 The Jesuits come to Macao.
1578 Alessandro Valignano arrives in Macao as supervisor of all Jesuits in East Asia.
1579 Michele Ruggieri S.J. arrives in Macao.
1582 Matteo Ricci S.J. arrives in Macao.
1583 Ruggieri and Ricci establish a missionary station in Xiuqing.
1584 Ricci draws his first map of the world.
1585 The Augustin Juan Gonzales de Mendoza publishes his description of China.
1591First Chinese members of the Jesuit order.
1601Ricci is called to the Chinese court.
1602Xu Guangqi is baptized.
1603First edition of Ricci's Tianzhu shiyi in Beijing.
1604The Jew Ai comes to Beijing and informs Ricci about the Jewish community in Kaifeng.
1605Bento de Gois S.J. arrives in Suzhou (Gansu).
1607Bento de Gois S.J. dies in Suzhou.
1610Li Zhizao is baptized.
1611The Jesuits are asked to reform the Chinese calendar.
1612Nikolaas Trigault S.J. (1577-1628) travels to Rome in order to support for the mission in China.
1616Oppression of Christians by Shen Que.
1618Johannes Schreck S.J. (Terrentius, 1575-1630) travels to Asia.
1625Discovery of a Nestorian inscription in Xianfu.
1630Johannes Schreck S. J. dies. Johan Adam Schall S.J. takes care of Chinese calendar.
1630Schall's treatise on the telescope is published.
1635The pope is asked to intervene into the debate concerning the problem of rites.
1642Alvaro Semedo S.J. publishes his description of China.
1644Begin of Qing-dynasty.
1648Baptization of Helena and other members of the empirial Ming-family.
1650In relation to the debate on rites Martin Martini S.J. (1614-1661) is sent to Rome.
1655Publication of Martini's Novus Atlas sinensis in Amsterdam.
1655-56First Dutch embassy to China led by Jakob de Keyzer and Pieter de Goijer.
1656Martini's position on the problem of rites is supported by the pope.
1656Publication of Michael Boym's Flora sinensis in Vienna.
1656Martini's Sinicae historiae decas prima is published and causes a long lasting debate on biblical chronology.
1659Johannes Grüber S.J. and Bernhard Diestel S.J. arrive in Beijing.
1662Second Dutch embassy to China (Johan van Kampen, Constantin Nobel).
1664Persecution of the christians under Yang Guangxian.
1664Johannes Grüber S.J. and Heinrich Roth S.J. arrive in Rome.
1664Third Dutch embassy to China (Pieter van Hoorn).
1666 Adam Schall dies.
1667 Athanasius Kircher's China illustrata is published.
1670 Publication of first Chinese dictionary in Europe.
1672-74Publication of Ferdinand Verbiest's world map.
1676Publication of Domingo Fernandez Navarrete's Tratados historicos.
1682Publication of Specimen medicinae sinicae translated by Jesuits in Kanton and send to Europe by Andreas Cleyer.
1683First library catalogue of Chinese books is printed in Berlin.
1685Philippe Avril S.J. studies the landroute to China in Moscow.
1687Publication of three Confucian texts under the title Confucius Sinarum Philosophus.
1688Ferdinand Verbiest S.J. dies.
1688Beginning of the French Jesuit Mission
1689Jesuits are helpful in achieving the treaty of Nertschinsk between Russia and China.
1692Tolerance edict by emperor Kangxi.
1692 Isbrand Ides travels to Beijing as an envoy of the Russian court.
1693Charles Maigrot, apostolic vicar of Fujian, publishes a letter against the Chinese rites.
1694Andreas Müller, first scholar on China in Germany, dies.
1695Gemelli Carreri presumably has an audience at the Chinese court.
1697Leibniz publishes the Novissima Sinica.
1701Christan Mentzel, physican of Frederic the Great and scholar of Chinese matters, dies in Berlin.
1702-1776Publication of the Lettres édifiantes et curieuses.
1704The Chinese rites are condemned by the Holy Officium in Rome.
1705The popes envoy Maillard de Tournon arrives in Beijing.
1707Tournon proclaimes the condemnation of rites in Nanjing.
1712-15 Tulisen travels to Russia as a Chinese envoy.
1716"Red Edict" of emperor Kangxi.
1719-21 Embassy of Izmailov.
1720-42 Chinese character types are made in Paris by Etienne Fourmont.
1721-22 Lorenz Lange lives in Beijing as a Russian agent.
1722 Emperor Kangxi dies.
1726 Emperor Yongzhen prohibits the Christian religion by an edict.
1728-48 Publication of Stöcklein's Neue Welt-Bott.
1736 Jean Baptiste du Halde S.J. published his Description géographique [...] de la Chine.
1737 Anville publishes his Nouvel Atlas de la Chine using the Jesuit atlas.
1738Gottlieb Siegfried Bayer (1694-1738), pioneer of Chinese studies at the Academy of Science in St. Petersburg, dies.
1745 Etienne Fourmont, pioneer of Chinese studies at the Académie des inscription et belles-lettres in Paris, dies.
1751-52 Osbeck is in China.
1773 Jesuit order is dissolved.
1776-91 Mémoires concernant les Chinois are published.
1777-85 Mailla's Histoire générale de la Chine is published.
1789 Breitkopf tries to compose Chinese characters by using components.
1792-93 Earl Macartney's embassy to China.
1794-95 Dutch embassy to China unter Isaac Titsingh and Braam Houckgeest.
1834Introduction of lithography to print Chinese characters.



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