Engelbert Kaempfer: The History of Japan, London 1727

Internet Edition by Wolfgang Michel, Kyushu University, Fukuoka-City, Japan. © 2007



BOOK III. Of the State of Religion in Japan

Chap. I. Of the Religions of this Empire in general, and of the Sintos ReIigion in particular.

Liberty of Conscience, so far as it doth not interfere with the Interest of the secuIar Government, or aSect the peace and tranquility of the Empire, hath been at all times allow'd in Japan, as it is in most other Countries of Asia. Hence it is, that foreign Religions were introduc'd with ease, and propagated with success, to the great prejudice of that, which was establish'd in the country from remotest antiquity. In this last hundred years there were chiefly four Religions, considerable for the number of their adherents, to wit.

1. Sinto, the old Religion, or Idol-worship, of the Japanese.

2. Budsdo, The worship of foreign Idols, which were brought over into Japan, from the Kingdom of Siam, and the Empire of China.

3. Siuto, The Doctrine of their Moralists and Philosophers.

4. Deivus, or Kiristando, is as much as to say, the way of God and Christ, whereby must be understood the Christian Religion.   [204]    Fste of thcIt was owing to the commendable zeal, and the indefatigable care of the Spanish and Portugueze Missionaries, particularly the Jesuits,* that the Christian Religion was first introduced into Japan, and propagated with a success infinitely beyond their expectation, insomuch, that from the first arrival of the Fathers of the Society in the Province Bongo, which was about the year of Christ 1549, (or six years after the first discovery of Japan,) to the year 1625 or very near 1630) it spread through most Provinces of the Empire, many of the Princes and Lords openly embracing the same. Considering what a vast progress it had made till then, even amidst the many storms and difficulties it had been exposed to, there was very good reason to hope, that within a short compass of time the whole Empire would have been converted to the faith of our Saviour, had not the ambitious views, and impatient endeavours of these Fathers, to reap the temporal, as well as the spiritual fruits of their care and labour, so provoked the supreme Majesty of the Empire as to raise, against themselves and their converts, a perse cution, which hath not its parallel in History, whereby - the Religion, they preach'd, and all those that profess'd it, were in a few years time entirely exterminated.

Of the three chief Religions, which now flourish and are tolerated in Japan, the must be considered in the first place, more for its antiquity and long standing, than for the number of its adherents.

Sinto, which is also called Sinsju, and Kamimitsi, is the Idol-worship, as of old established in the Country. Sin and Kami, denote the Idols, which are the object


of this worship. Jo and Mitsi, is as much as to say, the way, or method, of worshiping these Idols. Siu signifies Faith, or Religion. Sinsja, and in the plural number Sinsju, are the persons, who adhere to this Religion.

The more immediate end, which the followers of this B/litfoftht Religion propose to themselves, is a state of happiness in this World. They have indeed some, though but obscure and imperfect notions, of the Immortality of our SouIs and a future state of bliss, or misery. And vet, as httle mindful as they are, of what will become of them in that future state, so great is their care and attention to worship those Gods, whom they believe to have a peculi.a;r share in the government and management of this world, with a more immediate influence, each according to his tilnctions, over the occurencies and necessities of human life. And although indeed they acknowledge a Supreme Being which, as they believe, dwells in the highest of Heaven, and tho' they likewise admit o£ some inferior Gods, whom they place among   [205]    the Stars, yet they do not worship and adore them, nor have they any festival days sacred to them, thinking, quae supra nos nihil ad nos, that Beings, which are so much above us, will littIe concern themselves about our aSairs. However they swear by these superior Gods, whose names are constantly inserted in the form of their oath. But they worship and invoke those Gods, whom they believe to have the sovereign command of their Country, and the supreme direction of ltS produce, of its elements, water, animaIs and other things, and who by vertue of this power, can more immediately aSect their present condition, and make them either happy or miserabIe in thislife. They are the more attentive in paying a due worship to these Divinities, as they seem to be persuaded, that this alone is sufficient to cleanse and to purify their hearts, and that doubtIess by (:onj~~~tgra their assistance and intercession, they will obtain in the abogttht filture Life rewards proportionabIe to their behaviour in this. This Religion seems to be nearly as ancient as the nation itself. If it is any ways probable, that the first - Japanese are descended of the Babjlonians, and that, whilst at Babel, they acquir'd some notions of the true religion, of the creation of the world, and its state before that time, as they are deliver'd to us in sacred writs, we may upon as good grounds suppose, that by the alteration of their language, and by the troubles and fatigues of so long alld tedious a journey, the same were almost entirely worn out of their minds, that upon their arrival in this extremity of the East, they deservedly bore a most profound respect to their leader, who had happily conducted them through so many dangers and difficulties, that after his death they deify'd him, that in succeeding ages other great men, who had well deserved of their Country, either by their prudence and wisdom, or by their courage and heroic actions, were likewise related among their Kami, that is, among the Immortal Spirits worthy to have divine honours paid them, and that to perpetuate their memory, Mias, or Temples, were in time erected to them. (Mia, properly speaking, signifies the House, or dwellingplace of a living Soul.) The respect due to these great men became in success of time so universal, that everv since it is thought to be a duty incumbent on everysincere lover of his Country, whatever sect otherwise he adheres to, to give publick proofs of his veneration and grateful remembrance of their virtues and signaI services, by visiting their Temples, and bowing to their Images, either on such days, as are more particularly consecrated to their memory, or on any other proper occasion, provided they be not in a state of impurity, and unfit to approach these holy places. Thus what was at first intended, as a simple act of respect and gratitude, turn'd by degrees into adoration and worship: Superstition at Iast was carried so far, that the Mikaddo's, or Ecclesiastical or Hereditary Emperors, being lineal descendants of these great Heroes, and supposed heirs of their excellent qualities, are look'd upon, as soon as they have taken possession    [206]    of the throne, as true and living images of their Kami's Or Gods, as Kami's themselves, possess'd of such an eminent degree of purity and holiness, that no Gege, (Gege is a vile name, which the Kuge, that is, the members of the Emperor's Ecclesiastical Court give to their Countrymen, who are not of the same noble and divine extraction) dare presume to appear in their presence, nay, what id still more, that all the other Kami's or Gods of the Country are under an obligation to visit him once a year, and to wait upon his sacred person, tho' in an invisible manner, during the tenth month. They are so far per suaded of the truth of this, that during the said month, which is by them call'd Kaminatsuki, that is, the month without Gods, no festival days are celebrated, because the Gods are supposed not to be at home in their Temples, but at Court waiting upon their Dairi. This Japanese Pope assumes also to himself, the sole power and authority of deifying and canonizing others, if it appears to him satonizing that they deserve it, either by the apparitions of their Souls after their death, or by some miracles wrought by them.

In this case the Emperor confers an eminent title upon the new God, or Saint, and orders a Mia, or Temple, to be built to his memory, which is done either at his own expence, or by the charitable contributions of pious, well dispos'd Persons. If afterwards it so happens, that those, who worship in this Temple, and more particularly devote themselves to the new God, prosper in their undertakings but much more if some extraordinary miracle hath been wrought, seemingly by his power and assistance, it will encourage other people to implore his protection, and by this means the number of his temples and worshippers will quickly encrease. Thus the number of divinities is augmented every age. But besides all the illustrious men, who from time to time, for their heroic actions or singuIar piety,have been by theSpirituaI Emperors related among the Divinities of the Country, they have another Series of Gods, of a more ancient date. Of these two successions are mention'd. The first is the succession of the Tensin Sstzi Dai, or seven great Celestial Spirits, who said to have existed in the most antient times of the Sun, long before the existence of men and heaven, and to have inhabited the Japanese world (the only country in their opinion then existing) many millions of years. The seventh and last of these great Celestial Spirits, whose name was Isanagi, having carnally known his divine Consort Isanami, in imitation of what he had observ'd of the Bird Isiatadakki, begot a second succession of Divinities, inferior indeed to the first, but still superior to all those, who existed since their time. This second succession is from the number of its chief heads call'd, Dsi Sin Go Dai, or the succession of the five terrestrial Divinities, who liv'd and govern'd the Country of Japan a long, but limited time. It is needless here to enlarge any further on this head, a full account of the ridiculous and fabulous notions of the Japanese, with regard   [207]    to these two successions of Divinities, having been already given in Book I. ch. 7. and Book II. ch. I. I will only add, that the History of the second succession is full of strange and uncommon adventures, knight errantries, defeats of giants, dragons and other monsters, which then desolated the country, to the great terror of its Semi-divine Inhabitants. Many cities and villages in the Empire have borrow'd their names from some such memorable action, which happen'd in the neighbourhood. They still preserve, in some of their temples, swords, arms and other warlike instruments, which they look upon as remains of that ancient time, and believe to be the very same which in the hands of these Semi-divine heroes prov'd so destructive and fatal to the disturbers of the peace and tranquillity of the Country. Uncommon respect is paid by the adherents of the Sintos Religion tow these sacred relicks, which are by some still believ'd to be animated by the Souls of their former possessors. In short, the Sintos whole System of the Sintos Divinity is such a lame ridiculous contexture of monstrous unconceivable fables, that even those, who have made it their business to study it, are asham'd to own, and to reveal all those impertinences [] to their own adherents, much less to the Buds-doists, and the adherents of other Religions. And perhaps would it not have stood its ground so long, had it not been for its close connexion with the civil customs, in the observation of which this nation is exceedingly nice and scrupulous. The Temples of the Sintoists are not attended by priests and ecclesiastical persons, but by laymen, who are generally speaking entirely ignorant of the grounds and reasons of the Religion they profess, and wholly unacquainted with the History of the Gods, whom they worship. Some few however there are among the Sintosju, or adherents Thtir Netiom of the Sintos Religion, chiefly of the order of the Canusi's, of tht bggin who will now and then make a sermon to the people, and tthngg.°f aZl be at some pains in instructing young children. During my stay in Japan, one of these Canusis came from Miaco to preach at the temple of Tensi, and afterwards at that of Suwa. He made a Sermon every day, in order to explain the Law, or Commandment Nacottominotarrai, or Naco ttomib arrai, but hi s Sermon s, at b es t, were ill di spos'd, confused compositions of romantick and ridiculous stories of their Gods and Spirits. They will teach their system of divinity to others for a proper consideration, and under an obligation of secrecy; particularly when they come to the last article, which relates to the beginning of all things, they take special care not to reveal the same to their disciples, till he hath oblig'd himself with an oath, sign'd with his hand and seal, not to profane such sacred and sublime mysteries, by discovering them to the ignorant and incredulous laity. The original text of this mysterious doctrine is contain'd in the following words taken out of a book, which they call Odaiki; Kai fakuno fasime Dsjusio Fuso Tatojaba Jujono sui soni ukunga Gotosi Tentsijno utsijni Itsi butsu wo seosu Katats Igeno gotosi fenquas ste sin to nar kuni toko datsno   [208]    Mikotto to goos: That is, In the beginning of the opening of all things, a Chaos floated, as fishes swim in the water for pleasure. Out of this Chaos arose a thing like a prickle, moveable andtransformable: This thing became a Soul or Spirit, and this Spirit is call'd KUNITOKODATSNO MIKOTTO.


Chap. II. Of the Sintos Temples, Belief and Worship.

THe Sinsju, that is, the adherents of the Sintos Religion call their Temples, or Churches, Mia, which word, as I have observ'd, signifies dwelling places of immortal Souls. They come nearest to the Fana of the ancient Romans, as they are generally speaking so many lasting monuments erected to the memory of great men. They call them also Jasijro, and Sia, or Sinsja, which last takes in the whole Court of the Mia, with all other buildings and dependencies belonging to the same. The Gods, who are the subject of their worship, they call Sin and Cami, which signifies Souls or Spirits. Sometimes also they honour them with the epithet of Miosin, sublime, illustrious, holy; and Gongen, just, severe, jealous. The adherents of other religions call the convents of their religious men, and the places of their worship, Sisia Tira, that is, temples, and the Gods themselves, which they adore, Fotoge. All other foreign Idols, the worship of whom was brought into Japan from beyond Sea, are comprehended under one general name of Bosatz, or Budz.. The Mias, as indeed all convents and religious houses in general, as well of this, as of their other sects, are seated ilr the pleasantest parts of the Country, on the best spots of ground, and commonly within, or near great cities, towns, villages and other inhabited places. I will confine my self in this chapter only to the Mias of the Slntoists. A broad and spacious walk planted with rows of fine cypres trees, which grow in the country, and are a tall fine tree, leads strait to the Mia, or else to the Temple-court, on which there are sometimes several Mias standing together, and in this case the walk aforesaid leads directly to that, which is reckon'd the chief. The Mias are, generally speaking, seated in a pleasant wood, or in the ascent of a fine green hill, and have neat stone stair cases leading up to them. Next to the highway, at the entry of the walk, which leads to the temple, stands, for distinction's sake from common roads, a particular fashion'd gate, call'd Torij, and built either of stone or wood. The Ttmpk Gates. structure of these gates is but very mean and simple, they consisting of two perpendicular posts or pillars, with two beams laid across, the uppermost of which is, for ornament's sake, depress'd in the middle, the two extremities standing upwards. Between the two cross beams   [209]    is placed a square table, commonly of Stone, whereon is engrav'd the name of the God, to whom the Mia is consecrated, in golden characters. (v. Fig. 74.) Sometimes such another gate stands before the Mia itself, or before the Temple-Court, if there be several Mias built together in one Court. Not far from the Mia is a Bason, commonly of stone, and full of water for those, who go to worship to wash themselves. Close to the Mia stands a great wooden Alms-chest. The Mia itself is neither a splendid nor a magnificent building, but very mean and simple, commonly quadrangular, and built of wood, the beams being strong and neat. It seldom exceeds twice or thrice a man's height, and two or three fathoms in breadth. It is raised about a yard, or upwards, from the ground, being supported by short wooden posts. There is a small walk, or gallery, to go round it, and a few steps lead up to this walk. The frontispiece of the Mia is as simple as the rest, consisting only of one, or two, grated windows, for those that come to worship to look through, and to bow towards the chief place within. It is shut at all times, and often without any body to take care of it. Other Mia's are somewhat larger, sometimes with an Anti-chamber, and two side-rooms, wherein the keepers of the Mia sit, in honour of the Cami, richly clad in their fine Ecclesiastical Gowns. All these several rooms have grated windows and doors, and the floor is cover'd with curious mats. Generally speaking, three sides of the temple are shut with deal-boards, there being no opening left but in the front. The roof is cover'd with tiles of stone, or shavings of wood, and jets out on all sides to a considerable distance, to cover the walk, which goes round the temple. It differs from other buildings by its being curiously bent, and compos'd of several layers of fine wooden beams, which jetting out underneath make it look very singular. At the top of the roof there is sometimes a strong wooden beam, bigger than the rest, laid length ways, at the extremities of which, two other beams stand up, crossing each other, sometimes a third one is laid a-thwart behind them. This structure is in imitation, as well as in memory, of the first Isje Temple, which tho' slmple, was yet very ingeniously and almost inimitably contriv'd so, that the weight and connexion of these several beams was to keep the whole building standing. Over the Temple-door hangs sometimes a wide flat bell, and a strong, long, knotted rope, wherewith those that come to worship, strike the bell, as it were, to give notice to the Gods of their presence. This custom however is not very ancient, nor did it originally belong to the Sintos Religion, for it was borrow'd from the Budsdo, or foreign Idol-worship. Within the temple is hung up white paper, cut into small bits, the intent of which is to make people sensible of the purity of the place. Sometimes a large Looking-glass is plac'd in the middle, for the wor shippers to behold themselves, and withal to consider, that as distinctly as the spots of their face appear in the Look ing-glass, so    [210]    conspicuous are the secret spots and frauds of their hearts in the eyes of the Immortal Gods. These temples are very often without any Idols, or Imag.es of the Cami, to whom they are consecrated. Nor indeed do they keep any Images at all in their temples, unless they deserve it on a particular account, either for the reputation and holiness of the carver, or because of some extraordi nary miracles wrought by them. In this case a particular box is contriv'd at the chief and upper end of the temple, opposite to its grated front, and it is call'd Fongu, which is as much as to say, the real, true Temple. In this box, which the worshippers bow to, the Idol is lock'd up, and never taken out, but upon the great festival day of the Kami, whom it represents, which is celebrated but once in a hundred years. In the same shrine are likewise lock'd up, what relicks they have, of the bones, habits, swords, or handy-works of the same God. The chief Mia of every place hath one or more Mikosi, as they call them, Mikesi, what belonging to it, being square, or six, or eightcorner'd Sacella, or smaller TempIes, curiously lacker'd, adorn'd without with gilt cornishes, within with looking-glasses, cut white paper and other ornaments, and hanging on two poles in order to be carried about upon proper occasions, which is done with great pomp and solemnity, when upon the Jennitz, that is, the chief festival-day of the God, to whom the Mia itself is consecrated, the Canusi or Officers of the Temple celebrate the Matsuri, of which more in another place. Sometimes the Idol of the Cami, to whom the Mia is dedicated, or such of his relicks, as are there kept, are carried about in these Mikosi's upon the same solemn occasion. The chief of the Canusis takes them out of the shrine of the Temple, where they are kept in curious white boxes, carries them upon his back to the Mikosi, and places them backwards into the same, the people in the mean time retiring out of the way, as being too impure and unworthy a race to behold these sacred things. The outside of the Mia, or the Antichamber, and other rooms built close to it, are commonly hung with divers ornaments, Scimiters curiously carved, Models of Ships, Images of different sorts, or other uncommon curiosities, affording an agreeable amusement for the idle spectators, who come to view and to worship in these Temples upon their holidays. These several ornaments are called Jemma, and are generally speaking free gifts to Jtmma, or the Temple, given by the adherents of this religion, pur- Ornamtntl of suant to vows, which they made, either for themselves, or for their relations and friends, when taken ill of some violent sickness, or labouring under some other misfortunes, and which they afterwards very scrupulously put in execution, both to shew the power of the Gods, whose assistance they implored, and their own deep sense of gratitude for the blessings receiv'd from them. The same custom is likewise observ'd by the adherents of the Bosatz, or Budsdo-Religion. Tab. XVII is a view of some of these Sintos Temples and Mikosi, copied from an original drawing of the Japanese.    [211]    These Mias, or Sintos atttnd'dTemples are not attended by spiritual persons, but by secular married men, who are call'd Negi, and Canusi, and Siannin, and are maintained, either by the legacies left by the founder of the Mia, or by the subsidies granted them by the Mikaddo, or by the charitable contributions of pious well-dispos'd persons, who come to worship there. Mikaddo, according to the litteral sense of the word, signifies the Sublime Port, Mi being the same with On, Goo, Oo, Gio, high, mighty, illustrious, supreme, sublime, and Kado, signifying a port, gate, or door. These Canusi's, or Secular Priests, when they go abroad, are for distinction's sake, clad in large gowns, commonly white, sometimes yellow, sometimes of other colours, made much after the fashion of the Mikaddo's Court. However, they wear their common secular dress under these gowns. They shave their beards, but let their hair grow. They wear a stiff, oblong, lacker'd cap, in shape not unlike a ship, standing out over their forehead, and tied under their chins with twisted silk-strings, from which hang down fringed knots, which are longer, or shorter, according to the office, or quality, of the person, that wears them, who is not oblig'd to bow down lower to persons of a superior rank, but to make the ends of these knots touch the floor. Their superiors have their hair twisted up under a black gauze, or crape, in a very particular manner, and they have their ears cover'd by a particular sort of a lap, about a span and a half long, and two or three inches broad, standing out by their cheeks, or hanging down, more or less, according to the dignities, or honourable titles confer'd upon them by the Mikaddo. By whom in Spiritual Affairs, they are under the absolute jurisdiction of the Mikaddo, but in Temporalities, they, and all other Ecclesiastical Persons in the Empire, stand under the command of two Dsi Sin Bugios, as they call them, or Imperial Temple Judges, appointed by the Secular Monarch. They are Their haughty and proud, beyond expression, fancying themselves to be of a far better make, and nobler extraction than other people. When they appear in a secular dress, they wear two Scimiters, after the fashion of the Noblemen. Tho' Secular Persons themselves, yet they think it their duty, and becoming their station, to abstain religiously from all communication and intimacy with the common People. Nay, some carry their scrupulous conceits about their own purity and holiness so far, that they avold conversing, for ear of injuring the same, even with other religious persons, who are not of the same Sect. As to this their conduct however, I must own, that something may be said on their behalf, for as much as this their uncommon carriage, and religious abstinence from all sort of communication with other people, seems to be the best means to conceal their gross ignorance, and the enormity and inconsistence of their system of divinity, which could not but be very much ridicul'd, if in conversation the discourse should happen to fall upon religious affairs. For the whole Sintos Religion is so mean and   [212]    simple, that besides a heap of fabulous and romantick stories of their Gods, Demi-gods and Heroes, inconsistent with reason and common sense, their Divines have nothing, neither in their sacred Books, nor by Tradition, wherewithal to satisfy the Inquiries of curious persons, about the nature and essence of their Gods, about their power and government, about the future state of our Soul, and such other essential points, whereof other Heathen Systems of Divinity are not altogether silent. For this reason it was, that when the foreign Pagan Budsdo Religion came to be introduced in Japan, it spread not only quickly, and with surprizing success, but soon occasioned a difference and schism even between those, who remain'd con- and faithful to the religion of their ancestors, by giving birth to two Sects? which the Sintoists are now divided into. The first of these Sects is call'd Juitz. The Orthodox Adherents of this, continued so firm and constant in the religion and customs of their ancestors, that they would not yield in any the least point, how insignificant soever. But they are so very inconsiderable in number, that the Canusi's, or Priests themselves make up the best part. The other Sect is that of the Riobu's: These are a sort of Syncretists, who for their own satisfaction, and for the sake of a more extensive knowledge in religious matters, particularly with regard to the future state of our Souls, endeavour'd to reconcile, if possible, the foreign Pagan Religion, with that of their ancestors. In order to this they suppose, that the Soul of Amida, whom the Budsdoists adore as their Saviour, dwelt by transmigration in the greatest of their Gods Ten Sio Dai Sin, the essence, as they call him, of light and sun. Most Sintoists confess themselves to this Sect. Even the Dairi, or the Ecclesiastical Hereditary Emperor's whole Court, perhaps sensible enough of the falsity and inconsistence of the religion, which they profess, and convinc'd, how poor and weak their arguments are, whereby they endeavour to support the almost divine majesty and holiness, which their master arrogates to himself, seem to incline to this Syncretism. Nay they have shewn not long ago, that they are no great enemies even to the foreign Pagan worship, for they conferr'd the ArchSbishoprick, and the two Bishopricks of the Ikosiu, the richest and most numerous Sect of the Budsdoists, Rcligienoftht upon Princes of the Imperial Blood. The Secular Monarch professes the religion of his forefathers, and pays Monarch-his respect and duty once a year to the Mikaddo, though at present not in person, as was done formerly, but by a solemn embassy and rich presents. He visits in person the Tombs of his Imperial Predecessors, and frequents also the chief Temples, and religious Houses, where they are worship'd. When I was in Japan myself, two stately Temples were built by order of the Secular Monarch in honour of the Chinese Philosopher Koosju, or as we call him Confutius, whose philosophy they believe, was communicated to him immediately from Heaven,   [213]    which same opinion the Greeks formerly had of the philosophy of Socrates. One thing remains worth observing, which is that many, and perhaps the greatest part of those, who in their life-time constantly profess'd the Sintos Religion, and even some of the Siutosjus, or Moralists, recommend their souls on their death-bed to the care of the Budsdo clergy, desiring that theNamanda might be sung for them, and their bodies burnt and buried, after the manner of the Budsdoists. The adherents of the Sintos Religion do BeMitfefthe not believe the Pythagorean Doctrine of the transmigration of Souls, altho' almost universally receiv'd by the afatartS/att. eastern nations. However, they abstain from killing and eating of those beasts, which are serviceable to mankind, thinking it an act of cruelty and ungratefulness. They believe, that the Souls, after their departure from the Bodies, transmigrate to a place of happiness seated just beneath the thirty three heavens and dwelling places of their Gods, which on this account they call Takamanofarra, which signifies, high and subcelestial Fields, that the Souls of those, who have led a good life in this world, are admitted without delay, but that the Souls of the bad and impious are denied entrance, and condemn'd to err without a time sufficient to expiate their crimes. This is all they know of a future state of bliss. But besides these Elysian-fields, these stations of happiness, they admit no hell, no places of torment, no Cimmerian darkness, no unfortunate state attending our SouIs in a world to come. Nor do they know of any other Devil, but that which they suppose to animate the Fox, a very miF chievous animal in this Country, and so much dreaded, that some are of opinion, that the impious after their death are transform'd into Foxes, which their Priests call Ma, that is, evil Spirits.

The chief points of the Sintos Religion (and those, the observation whereof its adherents believe, makes them agreeable to the Gods, and worthy to obtain from their divine mercy an immediate admission into the stations of happiness after their death, or what is more commonly aim'd at, a train of temporal blessings in this life) are, I. The inward purity of the heart. t. A religious abstin ence from whatever makes a man impure. 3. A diligent observation of the solemn festival and holy days. 4. Pilgrimages to the holy places at Isie. Of these, to which by some very religious people is added, 5. Chastizing 0and mortifying their bodies, I proceed nollv to treat severally.

To begin therefore with the inward purity of the heart, the same consists in doing, or omitting those things,which they are order'd to do, or to avoid, either by the law of nature, and the dictates of reason, or the more immediate and special command of civil magistrates. The law of external purity, of which more hereafter, is the only one, the observation of which is more strictly recommended to the followers of this Religion. They have no other Laws given them, neither by Divine nor Ecclesiastical authority, to direct and to regulate them in their   [214]    outward behaviour. Hence it would be but natural to think, that they should abandon themselves to all manner of voluptuousness and sinful pleasures, and allow themselves, with out restraint, whatever can gratify their wishes and desires, as being free from fear of acting contrary to the will of the Gods, and little apprehensive of the effects of their anger and displeasure. And this perhaps would be the miserable case of a nation in this condition, were it not for a more powerful ruler within their hearts, natural reason, which here exerts it self with full force, and is of itself capable enough to restrain from indulging their vices, and to win over to the dominion of virtue, all those, that will but hearken to its dictates. But besides, the civil magistrates have taken sufiicient care to supply what is wanting on this head; for, by their authority, there are very severe laws now in force against all sorts of crimes and misdemeanors. And certainly the Japanese Nation, consider'd in the main, makes it evident, that the dictates of natural reason, and the laws of civil magistrates, are sure guides enough to all those, that will lead a good and virtuous life, and preserve their hearts in a state of purity.

But as to the external purity, the observance whereof tho' less material in it self, hath yet been more strictly commanded, it consists in abstaining from blood, from eating of flesh, and from dead bodies. Those, who have render'd themseIves impure by any of these things, are thereby disabled from going to the temples, from visiting holy places, and in general from appearing in presence of the Gods. Whoever is stain'd with his own, or other blood, is Fusio for seven days, that is, impure and unfit to approach holy places. If in building a Mia, or Temple, one of the workmen should happen to be hurt, so as to bleed in any part of his body, it is reckon'd a very great misfortune, and such a one, as makes him altogether incapable to work for the future on that sacred building. If the same accident should happen in building, or repairing, any of the Temples of Tensio Dai Sin at Isje, the misfortune doth not affect the Workman alone, but the Temple it self must be pull'd down, and rebuilt anew. No woman may come to the Temple, whilst she hath her monthly terms. It is commonly believ'd, that in their holy pilgrimages to Isje, the monthly terms do for that time entirely cease, which if true, must be owing, either to the fatigues of a long and tedious journey, or to their taking great pains to conceal it, for fear their labour and expences should thereby become useless. Whoever eats the Idesh of any four footed beast, Deer only excepted, is Fusio for thirty days. On the contrary whoever eats a fowl, wild or tame, water fowls, pheasants and cranes excepted, is Fusio but a Japanese hour, which is equal to two of ours. Whoever kills a beast, or is present at an execution, or attends a dying person, or comes into a house, where a dead body lies, is Fusio that day. But all the things, which make us impure, none is


 reckoned so very contagious, as the death of Parents and near relations. The nearer you are related to the dead person, so much the greater the Impurity is. All Ceremonies which are to be observed on this occasion, the time of mourning and the like, are determined by this rule. By not observing these precepts, people make themselves guilty of external impurity, which is detested by the Gods, and become unfit to approach their Temples. Over scrupulous people, who would be looked upon as great Saints, strain things still further, and fancy that even the Impurities of others will affect them in three different ways, viz. by the Eyes, which see impure things, by the mouth which speaks of them, and by the ears, which hear them. These three ways to sin and impurity are represented by the Emblem of three Monkeys sitting at the feet of Dsijso, and shutting with their fore feet, one both his Eyes, the other his mouth, the third his ears. This Emblem is to be seen in most Temples of the Budsdoists, of whom it hath been borrow'd. We found it also in several places upon the high way. An acquaintance of mine at Nagasaki was so exceedingly nice and scrupulous on this head, that when he received but a visit of one, whom he had reason to suspect of being a Fusio, he caused his house to be wash'd and cleaned with water and salt from top to bottom, and yet, all this superstitious care notwithstanding the wiser of his Countrymen look upon him as a downright Hypocrite.




Chap. III. Of the Sintos Rebi, that is, their fortunate and Holidays, and the Celebration thereof.

The Celebration of solemn Festivals and Holidays, which is the third essential; 2;§ li9z33 point of the Sintos Religion, consists in what they call Majiru, that is, in going to the Mias and Temples of the Gods and deceased great Men. This may be done at any time, but ought not to be neglected on those days, which are particularry consecrated to their worship, unless the faithful be in a state of Impurity, and not duely qualify'd to appear in the presence of the Immortal Gods, who detest all uncleaness. Scrupulous adorers carry things still further, and think it unbecoming to appear in the presence of the Gods, even when the thoughts, or memory of their misfortunes, possess their mind. For, as these Immortal Beings dwell in an uninterrupted state of bliss and happiness, such objects, 'tis thought, would be offensive and unpleasing to them, as the addresses and supplications of


people, whose hearts, the very inmost of which is laid open to their penetrating sight, labour under deep sorrow and affliction. They perform their devotions at the Temples in the following manner. The worshippers having first wash'd and clean'd themselves, put on the very best cloath they have, heraptrfermd. with a Kamisijno, as they call it, or a garment of Ceremony, everv one according to his ability. Thus clad they walk, with a compos'd and grave countenance, to the Templecourt, and in the first place to the bason of water, there to wash their hands, if needful, for which purpose a pail is hung by the side of it, then casting down their eyes they move on, with great reverence and submission, towards the Mia itself, and having got up the few steps, which lead to the walk round thetemple, and are placed opposite to the grated-windows of the Mia, and the looking-glass within, they fall down upon their knees, bow their head quite to the ground, slowly and with great humility, then lift it up again, still kneeling, and turning their eyes towards the looking-glass, make a short prayer, wherein they expose to the Gods their desires and neces sities, or say a Takamano Farokami Jodomari, and then throw some Putjes, or small pieces of money, by way of an offering to the Gods and charity to the Priests, either through the grates upon the floor of the Mia, or into the Alms-box, which stands close by: All this being done, they strike thrice the bell, which is hung up over the door of the Mia, for the diversion of the Gods, whom they believe to be highly delighted with the sound of Musical Instruments, and so retire, to divert themselves the remaining part of the day, with walking, exercises, eating or drinking, and treating one another, in the very best manner they can. This plain and simple act of devotionj which may be repeated at any time, even when they are not clad in their best cloaths, is on the solemn festivals perform'd by all the Sintos Worshippers, at the Temples of one, or more Gods, whom they more peculiarly confide into, either for being the patrons of the profession they follow, or because otherwise they have it in their power to assist and to forward them in their private under takings. They have no settled rites and church cere monies, no beads, nor any stated forms of prayers. Every one is at liberty to set forth his necessities to the Gods, in what words, and after what manner he pleases. . Nay, there are among them, who think it needless to do it in any at all, upon a supposition, that the very inmost of their hearts, all their thoughts, wishes and desires, are so fully known to the immortal Gods, as distinctly.their faces are seen in the looking glass. Nor is it in the least requisite, that by any particular mortification of their bodies, or other act of devotion, they should prepare themselves worthily to celebrate their festival days, ordinary or extraordinary, or the days of commemoration of their deceased parents, or nearest relations. Even on those days, which are more particularly consecrated to


commemorate the death of their Parents, and which they observe very religiously, they may eat or drink any thing they please, provided it be not otherwise contrary to the customs of the Country. It is observable in general, that their Festivals and Holidays are days sacred rather to mutual compliments and civilities, than to acts of holiness and devotion, for which reason also they call them Rebi's, which implies as much as Visiting-days. 'Tis true indeed, that they think it a duty incumbent on them on those days, to go to the Temple of Tensio Daisin, the f.rst and principal object of their worship, and the Temples of their other Gods and deceased great men. And although they are scrupulous enough in the observance of this duty, yet the best part of their time is spent with visiting and complimenting their superiors, friends and relations. Their feasts, weddings, audiences, great entertainments, and in general all manner of publick and private Rejoicings are made on these days preferably to others, not only because they are then more at leisure, but chiefly because they fancy, that their Gods themselves are very much delighted, when men allow themselves reasonable pleasures and diversions. All their Rebi's or Holidays in general, are unmovable, and fix'd to certain days. Some are monthly, others yearly, both which I proceed now more particularly to enumerate.

    The Monthly Holidays are three in number. The first Monthlj is call'd Tsitatz, and is the first day of each month. It deserves rather to be call'd a Day of Compliments and mutual Civilities, than a Church or Sunday. The Japanese on this day rise early in the morning, and pass their time going from house to house to see their superiors, friends and relations, to pay their respects and compliments to them, and to wish them Medito, or Joy on the happy return of the New Moon. The remainder of the day is spent about the Temples and in other pleasant Places where there is agreeable walking. Some divert themselves with drinking of Soccana, a sort of liquor peculiar to this Country. Others pass the afternoon in company with Women. In short, every one follows that day, what pleasures and diversion he likes best. And this custom is grown so universal, that not only the Sintoists, but the Japanese in general, of all ranks and religions, observe it as a custom, derived down to them from their ancestors, and worthy, were it but on this sole account, that some reeard should be paid to it.

The second Monthly Holiday, is the fifteenth of each month, being the day of the Full-Moon. The Gods of the Country have a greater share in the visits, the Japanese make on this day, than their Friends and Relations. Ther third Their third Monthly holiday, is the twenty-eighth of each month, being the day before the New Moon, or the last day of the decreasing Moon. Not near so much regard is had to this, than there is to either of the two former, and the Sintos Temples are very little crowded on it. There is a greater concourse of People on this day at the   [218]    Budsdos Temples, it being one of the Monthly Holidays sacred to Amida.

They have five great yearly Rebi, or Sekf, that is, Festivals or holidays, which from their number are called Gosekf, that is, the five solemn festivals. They are pur posely laid upon those days, which by reason of their Imparity are judged to be the most unfortunate, and they have also borrow'd their names from thence. They are, I. Soguatz, or the new-years day. 2. Sanguatz Sannitz, the third day of the third month. 3. Goguatz Gonitz, the fifth day of the fifth month. 4. Sitsiguatz Fanuka, the seventh day of the seventh month, and 5. Kuguatz Kunitz, the ninth day of the ninth month.

These five great yearly festivals are again little else but Festa Politica, days of universal rejoicings. It hath been already observ'd, that they were by their Ancestors purposely and prudently appointed to be celebrated on those days, which were judged by their imparity to be the most unfortunate, and this in order to divert their Cami's or Gods by their universal mirth, and by their wishing of Joy and happiness to each other to decline, and to avoid, all unhappy accidents that might otherwise befal them: on this account also, and because of their being days sacred not so much to the worship of their Gods, as to joy and pleasure, they are celebrated indifferently, not only by the Sintoists, but by the generality of the Japanese, whatever sect or religion they otherwise adhere to.

But to take them into a more particular consideration, I will begin with the Songuatz, or New-years-day, which is celebrated in Japan with the utmost solemnity, preferably to all other Holidays. The main business of the day consists in visiting and complimenting each other on the happy beginning of the New Year, in eating and drinking, and going to the Temples, which some do to worship, but far the greater part for pleasure and diversion. Whoever is able to stir, gets up betimes in the morning, put on his best cIoaths, and repairs to the houses of his patrons, friends and relations, to whom he makes, with a low bow, his Medito, as they call it, or compliment suitable to the occasion, and at the same time presents them with a box, wherein are contained two or three fans, with a piece of the dried flesh of the Awabi, or Auris Marina, tied to them, and his name writ upon the box, for the information of the person to whom the present is made, in case he should not be at home, or not at leisure to receive Company. The piece of the Awabi flesh in particular, is intended to remind them of the frugality, as well as the poverty of their Ancestors, who liv'd chiefly upon the flesh of this Shell, and to make them sensibIe of their present happiness and plenty. In houses of people of quality, where the number of visiters on such days must needs be very considerabIe, they keep a Man on purpose, waiting at the entry of the house, or in one of the lowermost apartments, to receive both the


 compliments and presents that are made that day, and to set down in writing the names of the persons, who came to wait upon his master, and what presents they brought along with them. The forenoon being thus spent, and by repeated draughts of strong Liquors, which they are presented with in several places, a good founda tiOll laid for the ensuing frolick, they crown the solemnity of the day with a plentiful dinner, which is commonly provided by the head or chief of the family. This visiting, and rambling about from place to place, lasts three days, but the eating and drinking, and treating one another is not discontinued for the whole month. The first three or four days every thing is provided for in plentys and every one clad as elegantly and handsomely as his abilities will aIlow. Even poor labouring people, on this occasion, wear a Camisijno, as they call it, or a Gar ment of Ceremony, with a Scimiter stuck in their girdle. If they have none of their own, they borrow them of other people, for fear of being excluded from honest companies, and depriv'd of their share in the universal mirth and pleasure. Some few go to perform their devo tions at the Temples, particularly that of Tensio Dai Sin.

The second Sekf, or great yearly Festival, is call'd Sanguatz Sannitz, because of its being celebrated on the third day of the third month. On this also, after the usual compliments and visits, which friends and relations pay one to another, and inferiors to their superiors, every one diverts himself in the best manner he can. The season of the year, the beginning of the spring, the trees, chiefly Plumb, Cherry and Apricock-trees, which are tllen in full blossom, and Ioaded with numberless white and incarnate flowers, single and double, and no less remark able for their largeness and plenty, than for their singular beauty, invite every body to take the diversion of the Country, and to behold nature in her new and inimitable dress. But this same festival is besides a day of pleasure and diversion for young girls, for whose sake a great Entertainment is commonNy prepared by their Parents, whereto they invite their nearest relations and friends. A large and spacious apartment is curiously adorn'd with Puppets to a considerable value, which are to represent the Court of the Dairi, or Ecclesiastical Hereditary Emperor, with the Person of Finakuge. A Table with Japanese victuals is pIac'd before each Puppet, and among cther things, cakes made of rice and the leaves of young mugwort. These victuals, and a dish of Saki, the guests are presented with by the girls, for whose diversion the entertainment is intended, or if they be too young by their Parents. The foIlowing Story gave birth to this custom. A rich man, who liv'd near Riusagava, which is as much as to say, the Bird River, had a daughter call'd Bunsjo, who was married to one Symmios Dai Miosin. Not having any children by her husband for many years, she very earnestly address'd herself in her prayers to the Cami's or Gods of the Country, and this with so much success, that    [220]    soon after she found herself big, and was brought to bed of 500 eggs. The poor woman extremely surpriz'd at this extraordinary accident, and full of fear, that the eggs, if hatch'd, would produce monstrous animals, pack'd them all up into a box, and threw them into the River Riusagawa, with this precaution however, that she wrote the word Fosjoroo upon the Box. Sometime after an old Fisherman, who lived a good way down the river, found this box floating, took it up, and having found it full of eggs, he carried them home to present them to his wife, who was of opinion, that there could not be any thing extraordinary in them, and that certainly they had been thrown into the water for some good reason, and there fore she advised him to carry them back, where he found them. But the oId Man reply'd: We are both old, said he, my dear, and just on the brink of the grave, it will be a matter of very little consequence to us, whatever comes out of the eggs, and therefore I have a mind to hatch them, and to see what- they will produce. Accordingly; he hatch'd them in an oven, in hot sand, and between cushions, as the way is in the Indies, and having after wards open'd them, they found in every one a Child. To keep such a number of Children prov'd a very heavy burthen for this old couple. However they made a shift, and bred them up with mugwort-leaves minc'd, and boil' d rice. But in time they grew so big, that the old man and his wife could not maintain them any longer, so that they were necessitated to shift for themselves, as well as they couId, and took to robbing on the highway. Among other projects, it was propos'd to them to go up the river to the house of a rich man, who was very famous for his great wealth in that part of the Country. As good Iuck would have it, this house proved to be that of their -Mother. Upon application made at the door, one of the servants ask'd what their names were, to which they answer'd, that they had no names, that they were a brood of S°° eggs, that mere want and necessity had oblig'd them to call, and that they would go about their business, if they would be so charitable as to give them some victuals. The servant having brought the message in to his Lady, she sent him back to inqulre, whether there had not been something writ upon the box, in which the eggs had been found, and being answer'd, that the word Fosjoroo was found writ upon it, she could then no longer doubt, but that they all were her children, and accordingly acknowledg'd and receiv'd them as such, and made a great entertainment, whereat every one of the guests was pre sented with a dish of Sokana, cakes of mugwort and rice, and a branch of the Apricock-tree. This is the reason they give, why on this FestivaI branches of Apricocktrees are laid over the kettle, and cakes made of mugwort and rice; which they call Futsumotzi, that is, Mugwort Cakes, and prepare after the following manner: The mugwort leaves are soak'd in water over-night, then press'd, dry'd and reduc'd to powder,    [221]    afterwards mix'd with rice, which hath been boiltd in water, then again reduc'd to powder and mix'd with boil'd rice and Adsuki, or red beans grossly powder'd, and so bak'd into cakes. The mother of these children was afterwards related among the god desses of the country, by the name of Bensaiten They believe that she is waited upon in the happy regions of the Gods by her five hundred sons, and they worship her as the goddess of riches.

The third Seku, or yearly Festival, is Goguatz-Gonitz, or the fifth day of the fifth montn. It is also call'd Tangono Seku, and is much of the same nature with the last, with this difference only, that it is intended chiefly for the diversion of young boys, who in this, as well as in other countries, neglect no opportunity to make a holiday, and to play about. The Inhabihnts of Nagasaki divert themselves on the water on this and some following days, rowing up and down in their boats, which are for this purpose curiously adorn'd, and crying, according to the custom of the Chinese, Peiruun, Peiruun. Mugwort leaves are put upon the roofs and over the doors of their houses. It is commonly believ'd that the Mugwort gather'd about this time of the year, and particularly on these holidays, makes the best and strongest Moxa, when three or four years old. This Festival owes its origine to the history of Peiruun, a King of the Island Hiltery of Manrigasima, of whom, and the tragical destruction this once rich and flourishing Island, I have given a large account, in my Amcenitates Exoticae, Fasc 3. § 13. whereto I refer the Reader. (See the History of the Tea in the Appendix.) It begun to be celebrated at Nagasaki, by the Foktsui people, who introduc'd it at first among the young boys, and kept it for some time, before elderly and grave people would conform themselves to the custom. It is said, that at the place, where the Island stood, some remains of it do still appear in low water. The very best earth for porcellane ware is found at the same place, and sometimes entire vessels of a fine, thin, greenish, old china are taken up by the Divers, which the Japanese have a very great value for, both for their antiquity and for the good quality, which it is said they have, not only to preserve Tea a long while, but even to restore old Tea, which begins to decay, to its former strength and goodness.

The fourth great yearly Festival is call'd Sissiguatz Nanuka, because of its being celebrated on the seventh day of the seventh month. They give it also the name of Sisseki Tanabatta, which implies as much, and Tanomunoseku, which is as much as to say, an Auxiliar Festival. The usual pleasures and diversions consisting in visiting one another, in eating and drinking, are follow'd on this day with the same freedom, as on other solemn days. The School-boys in particular, among various sorts of plays, erect poles or posts of Bambous, and tie verses of their own making to them, to shew their application and progress at School.   [222]    The fifth and last of the great yearly Festivals is, Kunitz, or Kuguatz Kokonoka, so call'd, because of its being celebrated on the ninth day of the ninth month. Drinking is the favourite diversion on this Festival, tho' without prejudice to other their usual rejoicings. No expences are spar'd to provide victuals and good liquors in plenty, every one according to his ability. The joy and mirth is universal. Neighbours treat one another by turns that and some following days. Not even strangers and unknown persons are suffer'd to pass by without being invited to make merry with the company. In short, one would imagine that the Bacchanals of the Romans had been brought over into Japan, and establish'd there. At Nagasaki the solemnity is so much the greater, as the festival of Suwa, formerly a renowned Hunter, and now God and Protector of hunting, luckily happens to fall upon this same day. All sorts of diversions and publick shews, dancing, plays, processions and the like, (which they call Matsuri, or an offering, and Matsuru, that is, making an offering) so greatly divert and amuse the people, that many chuse rather to lose their dinner, than to give over sauntering and staring about the streets till late at night.

But besides these five great yearly Festivals, there are many more Holidays observ'd in Japan, of less note indeed, and sacred to particular Gods and Idols, in whose honour they are celebrated, either universally and throughout the Empire, or only in such particular places, which in a more peculiar manner acknowledge their favour and protection. It would be needless, and almost endless, to mention them all: However, to give some satisfaction to mv Reader, I will confine my self to some of the most eminent. But before I proceed, I must beg leave to observez that for the major part, they are not of so great antiquity and long standing, as the great yearly Festivals mention d above, but of a later date, and instituted at different times in honour and memory of some of their Emperors, and other great Men, who had either in their life time done signal services to their Country, or by their apparitions after their death, by extraordinary miracles wrought by them, and by their powerful assistance in private undertakings convinc'd their Countrymen, that having been transported into the regions of immortal Spirits, they had no small share in the government of this world, and were worthy, on this account, to have divine worship paid them.

Tensio Dai Sin is the supreme of all the Gods of the Japanese, and acknowledg'd as Patron and Protector of the whole Empire. His annual Festival falls upon the sixteenth day of the ninth month, and is celebrated in all cities and villages, throughout the Empire, among other things, with solemn Matsuri's, as they call them, or processions and publick shews in honour, and often in presence of his Idol and Priests. lt is a custom which obtains in all cities and villages, to have   [223]    two such Matsuri's celebrated every year with great pomp and solemllity in honour of that God, to whose more particular care and protection they have devoted themselves. As to Tensio Dai Sin, besides his great yearly festival) which is on the sixteenth day of the ninth month, the sixteenth, twenty first and twenty sixth, days of tvery month are likewise sacred to him, but not celebrated with any great solemnity.

The ninth, (common people add the nineteenth and t'venty ninth) of every month are sacred to Suwa. All lovers of hunting, and such persons as recommend themselves Suwa's more immediate protection, never fail on these days to pay their duty and worship to him at his Temples. His annual festival is celebrated with more than ordinary pomp and solemnity, on the ninth day of the sixth month. The Canusis on this day make all those, that come to worship at Suwa's Temples creep through a circle, or hoop, made of Bambous, and wound about with linnen, in memory of a certain accident, which is said to have happen'd to the Saint in his Life time. But the greatest of his yearly festivals is celebrated at Nagasaki on the ninth day of the ninth month. This City hath a particular veneration for Suwa, and the Matsuri's, and other publick and private rejoycings made on this occasion, last three days successively.

Tensin hath two yearly festivals, one on the twenty fifth day of the second month, the other on the twenty fifth day of the eight month, which last is celebrated with much greater solemnity than the first. His chief Temple is at Saif, the place of his banishment. He hath another at Miaco, where he manifested himself by many miracles. His adorers resort in pilgrimage to these two places from all parts of the Empire, chiefly on the twenty fifth day of the eight month. He hath also a private monthly holiday, every twenty fifth day of the month.

The Festival of Fatzman, a Brother of Tensio Dai Sin, is likewise celebrated on the 2sth day of the eighth month. He was in his lifetime call'd Oosin, and was the 16th Emperor of Japan.

The Festival of Mori Saki Dai Gongen, is on the 18th day of the third month.

   Simios Dai Miosin.


   Gotsutenno, or Giwon, hath his Festival at Nangasaki, on the fifteenth day of the sixth month. His monthly holiday is the same with Fatzman's, but little regarded.

Inari Dai Miosin, is the great God of the Foxes. His yearly Festival is on the eighth day of the eleventh month, and his monthly holiday every eighth day of the month.

Idsumo no O Jasijro, that is, O Jasijro of the Province O Idsumo, is another God, for whom they have a great respect. Amongst several glorious    [224]    exploits, he kill'd a mischievous terrible Dragon. He is call'd also Osjuwo ni no Mikotto.

Kassino Dai Miosin. She was Empress of Japan, and in her life-time call'd Singukoga.

Bensaiten. Her Festival is on the seventh day of the eighth month. The History of this Goddess is amply describ'd at the beginning of this Chapter.

Kumano Gongen.

Naniwa Takakuno Mia Kokfirano Dai Miosin, was the seventeenth Emperor of Japan, and in his life time call'd Nintoku.

Askano Dai Miosin, was the twenty seventh Emperor of Japan, and when alive call'd Kei Tei.

Kimbo Senno Gogin, was in his life time call'd Ankan, and was the twenty eighth Emperor of Japan.

The merchants worship and devote themselves in a more peculiar manner to the four following Gods, as Gods of fortune and prosperity. 1. Jebisu was Tensio Daisin's brother, but by him disgrac'd and banish'd into an uninhabited Island. It is said of him, that he could live two or three days under water. He is, as it were, the Neptune of the Country, and the Protector of Fishermen, and Seafaring-people. They represent him sitting on a rock, with an angling-rod in one hand, or the celebrated fish Tai, or Steenbrassem in the other. 2. Daikoku, is said to have the power, that wherever he knocks with his hammer, he can fetch out from thence any thing he wants, as for instance, rice, victuals, cloth, money, &c. He is commonly represented sitting on a bale of rice, with his fortunate hammer in his right hand, and a bag laid by him, to put up what he knocks out. 3. Tossitoku, and by some call'd Kurokusi. The Japanese worship him at the beginning of the new year, in order to obtain from his assistance, success and pros perity in their undertakings. He is represented standing, clad in a large gown, with long sleeves, with a long beard, a huge monstrous forehead, and large ears, and a fan in his right hand. The pictures of these three Gods are to be seen amongst other ornaments of Table VIII, or the large Map of Japan. 4. Fottei, by some call'd Miroku, is represented with a great huge belly. His worshippers expect from his benevolent assistance, among other good things, health, riches, and children.

These are the greatest of their Gods, and the Festivaldays sacred to them. There are many more saints and great men, whose memory is celebrated on particular days, because of their noble actions, and great services done to their country. But as they are confined to particular places, being call'd the Saints of such or such a place, and besides, as they were never canoniz'd by the Mikaddo, who alone can make Saints, nor honour'd with an Okurina, as they call it, or   [225]    illustrious title, which is usually given to new Gods and Saints, I did not think it worth while to make any Enquiries about them.

Thus far, what an attentive traveller can learn in the Country, concerning the Sintos Religion, and the Gods, who are the objects of its worship. A more extensive and accurate account of both is contain'd in two Japanese Books, one of which is call'd Nippon Odaiki, being an Historical and Chronological account of their Kintsju, or great men, and their memorable actions; the other Sin Dai Ki, that is, the History and Actions of their great Gods.



Chap. IV. Of the Sanga or Pilgrimage to Isje.

Thee Japanese are very much addicted to g ha Pilgrimages. They make several, and to different places. The first and chief goes to Isje, the second to the 33 chief Quanwon Temples of the Empire, the third to some of the most eminent Sin, or Cami, and Fotoge or Buds Temples, famous for the great miracles wrought there, and the help and benefit, Pilgrims found by going to worship there: Such are for instance, Nikotira, that is, the Temple of the Splendour of the Sun in the Province Osju, some Temples of Fatzman, some Temples of the great teacher Jakusi, and some more, whereof every one is at liberty to chose, which he likes best, or which it best suits his convenience to resort to. A true Orthodox Sintoist visits no other Temples in Pilgrimage, but those of his own Gods, and the Temple Saif, in Tsikusen, where Tensin died. It may not be amiss to observe in general, that of the three severaI sorts of Pilgrimages mention'd above, the last are made indifferently, by the Sintoists as well as the Budsdoists, with this difference however, that every one goes only to those Temples, and worships only those Gods, whom his religion commands him to worship. The second, which is the Pilgrimage to the 33 Quanwon Temples, is peculiar to neither of these two Religions, but made indifferently by the adherents of both, and look'd upon by the generality of the Japanese as a sure means to obtain happiness in this world, and bliss in that to come. But the first of all, which is made to Isje, I propose to take into a more particular consideration in this Chapter.

Sanga in the litteral sense of the word, is as much as to say, the Ascent, or going up the Temple, and must I' understood only of this most eminent Temple of Tensio Dai Sin, or Tensio ko Dai Sin, that is, according to the litteral signification of these words, The great   [226]    Hereditary Imperial God of the Celestial Generation. This Tensio Dai Sin, is the greatest of all the Gods of the Japanese, and the first and chief object of the Sintos Worship, on which account also his Temple is call'd Dai Singu, that is, the Temple of the great God, for Dai signifies great, Sin and Cami, a God, a Spirit, or Immortal Soul, and Gu in conjunction with these words, a Mia, that is, a Temple, or holy building erected in honour and memory of a God, or Immortal Spirit. The common people call it Isje Mia, or the Temple of Isje, from a Province of that name, wherein it stands. A particular and extraordinary holiness is ascrib'd to this Province, because Tensio Dai Sin was born, lived and died there, whence also they derive the name Isje.

This Temple, according to the account of those, that have been to see it, is seated in a large plain, and is a sorry low building of wood, cover'd with a low, flattish, thatch'd roof. Particular care is taken to preserve it, as it was built originally, that it should be a standing monument of the extreme poverty and indigence of their ancestors and founders of the Temple, or the first men as they call them. In the middle of the Temple is nothing else but a lookingglass cast of Mettal, and polish'd, according to the fashion of the Country, and some cut-paper is hung round the walls; the lookingglass is placed there, as an Emblem of the All-seeing Eye of this great God, and the knowledge he hath of what passes in the inmost heart of his worshippers; the cut white paper is to represent the purity of the place, and to put his adorers in mind, that they ought not to appear before him, but with a pure unspotted heart and clean body. This principal Temple is surrounded with near an hundred small Chappels, built in honour of other Inferior Gods, which have little else of a Temple but the meer shape, being for the greatest part so long and small, that a man can scarce stand upright in them each of these Chapels is attended by a Canusi, or Secular Priest of the Sintos Religion. Next to the Temples and Chapels live multitudes of Nege, Lords or Officers of the Temple, and Taije, as they also stile themselves, that is, Evangelists or Messengers of the Gods, who keep houses and lodgings to accommodate Travellers and Pilgrims. Not far off lies a Town, or rather a large gorough, which bears the same name with the Temple and is inhabited by Inn-keepers, Printers, Paper-makers Book-binders Cabinet-makers, Joiners and such other workmen, whose business and profession are any ways related to the holy trade carried on at this place.

Orthodox Sintoists go in Pilgrimage to Isje once a year, or at least once in their life. Nay, 'tis thought a duty incumbent on every true Patriot, whatever sect or religion he otherwise adheres to, and a publick mark of respect and gratitude, which every one ought to pay to Tensio Dai Sin, if not, as to the God and Protector of the Nation, at least, as to its founder and first parent. But besides that   [227]    they look upon it as a duty, there are many considerable advantages, which, as they believe, accrue to those, that visit in Pilgrimage these holy places, such as for instance, absolution and delivery from sin, assurances of a happy state in the world to come, health, riches, dignities, children, and other temporal blessings in this life. To keep up the superstitious vulgar in these advantageous notions, every Pilgrim is presented by the Canusi's, for a small considerationy with an Ofarai, as they call it, that is, a great purifications being, as it were, a publick and undoubted instrument of the absolution and remission of their sins insured to themselves by this holy act. But as many People are not able to fetch them at Isje in person, by reason either of sickness, and old age, or because of their empoyments, attendance upon their Prince, or for some such other weighty cause, care is taken not to let them Want so great and singular a benefit, but to provide them at home Many of the Budsdoists resort in Pilgrimage to this place, at least once, if not oftner, in their life, were it but in order to get the reputation of a true Patriot amongst their Countrymen. But still there are very many who stay at home, and think it sufficient for the ease and quietness of their conscience, besides the yearly indulgences of their own Priests, to purchase the Ofarrais, from Isje, great quantities whereof are sent yearly to all parts of the Empire.

This Pilgrimage is made at all times of the year, but the greatest concourse of people is in the three first months (March, April and May,) when the season of the year, and the good weather, make the journey very agreeable and pleasant. Persons of all ranks and qualities, rich and poor, old and young, men and women, resort thither, the Lords only of the highest quality, and the most potent Princes of the Empire excepted, who seldom appear there in person. An Embassy from the Emperor is sent there once every year, in the first month, at which time also another with rich presents goes to Miaco, to the Ecclesiastical Hereditary Monarch. Most of the Princes of the Empire follow the Emperor's Example. As to the Pilgrims, who go there in Person, every one is at liberty to make the Journey in what manner he pleases. Able people do it at their own expence in litters, or on horseback, with a retinue suitable to their quality. Poor people go a foot, living upon charity which they beg along the road. They carry their bed along with them upon their back, being a Straw-mat roll'd up, and have a Pilgrims staff in their hands, and a pail hung by their girdle, out of which they drink, and wherein they receive people's charity, pulling off their hats much after the European mantler. Their hats are very large, twisted of split reeds. Generally speaking their names, birth, and the place from whence they come, are writ upon their hats and pails, that in case sudden death, or any other accident, should befall them upon the road, it might be known, who they are, and to whom they belong. Those that can afford it, wear a short white coat, without sleeves over    [228]    their Usual dress, with their names stitch'd upon it before the breast arld on the back. Multitudes of these Pilgrims are seen daily on the road. It is scarce credible what numbers set out, only from the Capital City of Jedo, and from the large Province Osju. It is no uncommon thing at iedo for children to run away from their parents, in order to go in Pilgrimage to Isje. The like attempt would be more difficult in other places, uhere a traveller, that is not provided with the necessary passports, would expose himself to no small trouble. As to those that return frorn Isje, they have the privilege, that the Ofarrai, which they bring from thence, is allow'd every where as a good Passport.

After the Pilgrim is set out on his Journey to Isje, a rope with a bit of white paper twisted round it, is hung up over the door of his house, as a mark for all such as labour under an Ima, as they call it, that is under a considerable degree of impurity, occasion'd chiefly by the death of their parents or near relations, to avoid entering the same? it having been observ'd, that when by chance, or thro Inadvertency, such an impure person came into a Pilgrim's house, the Pilgrim at the same time found himself very much troubled with strange uneasy dreams or expos'd to some misfortunes. The like marks of purity are also hung up over the walks which lead to the Mias, or Temples.

But it is requir'd besides, that the Pilgrim himself when he is about, or hath already undertaken this holy Journey, should abstain religiously, from what will make a man impure, as amongst other things from whoring, nay Iylllg with his own wife, not that otherwise it be thought all act of unholiness, and unpleasing to the Gods, to Cotnply with the duties of married persons, but because they are apprehensive that doing it at a time, when their nlltlds should be wholly taken up with the holy action they are about to perform, would prove prejudicial to thern; The Jammabos, that is, Mountain Priests, (a religious order affecting a very austere life) in order to keep up these ridiculous notions in the minds of the superstitious, never fail to report about, and to make people believe strange stories of persons in this case, who were so firmly and closely join'd one to another, that nothing but the power of their charms, and magical ceremonies could bring them asunder. Should a Fusio, a person that labours under any degree of impurity, presume to undertake this holy journey, before he hath sufficiently purified himself, he would undoubtedly draw upon him, and his family, the Sinbatz, tbat is the displeasure and vengeance of the just and pure Gods. The Siukkie, or Priests of the Budsdo Religion, stand excluded for ever from these holy places, because they follow an impure profession and are oblig'd to attend sick people, and to bury the dead.   [229]    When the Pilgrim is come to Isje, the desir'd end of his journey, which is done daily by great numbers, and upon some particular days by several thousands he repais forthwith to one of the Canusi's, whom he is acquainted withal, or hath been address'd to, or by whom he hath been before furnish'd with Ofarrais, and accosts him in a civil and humble manner, bowing his forehead quite down to the ground according to the country fashion. The Canusi upon this, either conducts him himself, with other pilgrims that applied to him for the same purpose, or commands his servant to go along with them, to shew them the several temples, and to tell them the names of the Gods, to whom they were built, which being done, he himself carries them before the chief temple of Tensio Dai Sin, where with great humility they prostrate themselves flat to the ground, and in this abject posture address their supplications to this powerful God, setting forth their wants and necessities, and praying for happiness, riches, health, long life, and the like. After this manner it is, that they discharge their duty towards Tensio Dai Sin, and compleat the end of their Pilgrimage. They are entertained afterwards, as long as they stay at Isje, by the Canusi, who lodges them at his own house, if they are not able to bear the expence of a lodging at a publick Inn. The Pilgrims however, are generally so grateful, as to make the Canusi a handsom return for his civility, should it be even out of what they got by begging, and he hath complaisance enough not to refuse it.

Having performed all the acts of devotion this Pilgrimage requires, the Pilgrim is by the Canusi presented with an Ofarrai, or Indulgence. This Ofarrai is a small oblong square box, about a span and half long, two inches broad, an inch and half thick, made of small thin boards and full of thin small sticks, some of which are wrapt up in btts of white paper, in order to remind the Pilgrim to be; pure and humble, these two virtues being the most pleaslng to the Gods. The name of the Temple, Dai Singu, that is, the Temple of the great God, printed in large characters, is pasted to the front of the box, and the name of the Canusi who gave the box, (for there are great numbers that carry on this trade) to the opposite side, in a smaller character, with the noble title of Taiju which is as much as to say, Messengers of the Gods a title which all the Officers of Mias assume to themselves.

This Ofarrai the Pilgrims receive with great tokens k of respect and humility, and immediately tie it under al their hats, in order to keep it from the rain. They wear it just under their forehead, and balance it with another box, or a bundle of straw, much of the same weight which they fasten to the opposite side of the hat. Those that travel on horseback have better conveniencies to keep and to hide it. When the Pilgrims are got safe home, they take especial    [230]    care for the preservation of this Ofarrai, as being a relick of very great moment and consequence to them. And altho' the effects and virtues of it be limited only to a year, yet after this term is expired, they allow it a very honourable place in one of the chief apartmetlts of their houses, on a shelf made for this purpose, and rais'd above a man's height. In some places the custom is to keep the old Ofarrais over the doors of their houses, underneath a small roof. Poor people, for want of a better place, keep them in hollow trees behind their houses. In like manner the Ofarrais of deceased people, and those that are dropt upon the road, when found, are put up carefully in the next hollow Tree.

Large quantities of these Ofarrais are sent by the Canusi's every year into all parts of the Empire, to supply those, who cannot conveniently, or are not willing tocome and fetch them at Isje. These Ofarrai Merchants make it their business to resort to the principal and most populous towns towards the Sanguatz,as they call it, or New-years-day, this being one of their most solemn festivals, and a day of great purification, and certainly the time when they are most likely to dispose of their merchandize quickly, and to advantage. They sell at the tsame time new Almanacks, which are made by the command of the Mikaddo, or Ecclesiastical Hereditary Emperor, and cannot be printed any where else but at Isje. One may buy an Ofarrai and an Almanack together for a Maas, or an Itzebo. Able people will give more by way of charity. Those that buy them once, are sure to be called upon the next year, and to be presented with three things, to wit, a receipt from the Canusi, or rather a compliment of thanks to the buyer, a new Ofarrai, and a new Almanack. Such as pay handsomely, and more than is due, which common people seldom do, receive moreover a Sakkant, or a varnish'd wooden cup, as a small return for their generosity.

The following account of the present state and situation of the Temples at Isje, is taken out of Itznobe, a Japanese Author. There are two Temples at Isje, about the length of twelve streets distant from each other, both indifferent low structures. The ground whereon they stand hath not above six mats in compass, the place where the Canusi's sit in honour of Tensio Dai Sin, token in. They are both cover'd with a thatch'd roof, and both built, which is very remarkable, without any one Of the workmen's receiving the least hurt in any part Of his body. Behind these two Temples on a small eminence) stands the small, but true Temple of Tensio Dai Sin, which is called Fongu, that is, the true Temple, and which hath been purposely built higher than the others, in like manner as the Temple of Suwa is at Tangasaki Within this Temple, a view of which, taken from a Japanese drawing, is represented in Tab. XVIII, there is nothing to be seen but a looking-glass, and bits of white paper.   [231]    The first of the Temples mention'd above is call'd Geku. It hath several Canusi's to attend it, and about fourscore Massia or smaller Temples around it, built in honour of Inferior Gods, each about four mats large, and guarded by a Canusi sitting within to receive people's charity, that being his perquisite for his attendance.

The second Mia is call'd Naiku, and stands about the length of twelve streets further off. It hath likewise great numbers of Canusi's, and forty Massia, or smaller Temples round it, each with a Canusi as above. The Canusi's of these smaller Temples have a very singular title, being call'd Mia Dsusume, which signifies TempleSparrows.

Those who have a mind to see these Temples, and what is remarkable in and about them, without being conducted by a Canusi, or his Servants, must observe the following Rules. They go in the first place to the River Mijangawa, which runs by the Village Isje, opposite to the Temples, there to wash and to clean themselves. Thence walking towards the houses of the Canusi's, and other merchants, which are about the length of three or four streets distant from the banks of the river, and passhag the said houses, they come to a broad gravelly walk, which leads them streigit to the Geku Mia. Here thex worship in the first place, and then go round to vlew the inferior Temples, beginning on the right hand, and so going on till they come again to the said Temple, from whence they proceed streight forward to the second, call'd Naiku, where they worship as before and see the Massia's round it. From this second Temple they proceed further up a neighbouring hill, situate not far from the coasts, and having walk'd the length of about fifteen streets, they come to a small cavern, called Awano Matta, that is, the Coast of Heaven, which is not above twenty Ikins distant from the Sea. 'Twas in this cavern the great Tensio Dai Sin hid himself, and thereby depriving the world, sun and stars of their light, shew'd, that he alone is the Lord and Fountain of Light, and the supreme of all the Gods. This Cavern is about a mat and a half large, with a small Temple or Chapel, wherein they keep a Cami or Idol sitting on a Cow, and call'd Dainitz no rai, that is, the great Representation of the Sun. Hard by live some Canusi's in two houses built upon the coasts, which are hereabouts very steep and rocky. The Pilgrim performs his devotions also at this Cavern and Temple, and then presents the Canusis with a few Putjes, desiring them withal to plant a Sugi-plant in memory of his having been there. From the top of this hill, a large Island is seen at a distance, lying about a mile and a half off the coasts, which they say arose out of the ocean in the times of Tensio Dai Sin. These are the most remarkable things to be seen at Isje. Curious Pilgrims before they return to Isje, go a couple of Miles further and see a stately BudsdoTemple, call'd Asamadaki, where they worship a Quanwon, call'd Kokusobosatz.   [232]



Chap. V. Of the Jammabos, or Mountain-Priests, and other Religious Orders.

The superstitious Japanese are no less inclin'd to make religious Vows, than they are to visit in pilgrimage holy places. Many among them, and those in particular, who aim at a quick unhinder'd passage into their Elysian Fields, or a more eminent nlace in these stations of happiness, devote themselves to enter into a certain religious order of Hermits, call'd Jammabos in the country-language. Others, who labour under some temporal misfortune, or are upon the point to go about some affair of consequence, frequently make vow, that in case of delivery from present danger, or good success in their undertakings, they will, out of respect and gratitude to the Gods, go to worship at certain Temples, or keep to a rigorous abstinence on certain days, or build Temples, or make valuable presents to the Priests, and extensive charities to the poor, and the like.

Jammabos signifies properly speaking, a Mountain Soldier. The character indeed, whereby this word is express'd, doth not altogether answer to this signification, which depends more upon the rules of their order, and their original establishment, whereby all the individual members of this society are oblig'd, in case of need, to fight for the Gods and the Religion of the Country. They are a sort of Hermits, who pretend to abandon the Temporal for the sake of the Spiritual and Eternal, to exchange an easy and commodious way of life, for an austere and rigorous one, pleasures for mortifications, spending most of their time in going up and down holy mountains, and frequently washing themselves in cold water) even in the midst of the winter. The richer among them, who are more at their ease, live in their own houses. The poorer go strolling and begging about the Country, particularly in the Province Syriga, in the neighbourhood of the high mountain Fusi Jamma, to the top whereof they are by the rules of their order oblig'd to climb every year in the sixth month. Some few have Mia's, or Temples, but generally speaking, so ill provided for, that they can scarce get a livelihood by them.

The founder of this order was one Gienno Giossa, who liv'd about 1100 years ago. They can give no manner of account of his birth, parents and relations. Nor had he any issue. He was the first that chose this solitary way of life for the mortification of his body. He spent all his time erring and wandering through desart, wild, and   [233]    uninhabited places, which in the end prov'd no inconsiderable service to his Country, insomuch, as thereby he discover'd the situation and nature of such places, which no body before him ventur'd to view, or to pass thorough, because of their roughness and wild aspect, and by this means found out new, easier and shorter roads from places to places, to the great advantage of travellers. His followers, in success of time, split in two differing orders. One is call'd Tosanfa. Those who embrace this, must once a year climb up to the top- of Fikoosan, a very high mountain in the Province Busen, Upon the confines of Tsikusen, a journey of no small difficulty and danger, by reason of the height and steezness of this mountain, and the many precipices all round it, but much more, because, as they pretend, it hath this singular quality, that all those who presume to ascend it, when Fusio's, that is, labouring under any degree of impurity, are by way of punishment for their impious rashness possess'd with the Fox (others wou'd say, the Devil) and turn stark mad. The second order is call'd, Fonsanfa. Those who enter into this, must visit in pilgrimage, once a year, the grave of their Founder at the top of a high mountain in the Province Jostsijno, which by reason of its height is call'd Omine, that is, the top of the high mountain. It is said to be excessive cold at the top of this mountain, the steepness and precipices whereof make its ascent no less dangerous, than that of the other mention'd above. Should any one presume to undertake this Journey, without having first duly purify'd and prepar'd himself for it, he would run the hazard of being thrown down the horrid precipices, and dash'd to pieces, or at least by a lingring sickness, or some other considerable misfortune, pay for his folly, and the contempt of the just anger of the Gods. And yet all these dangers and difficulties notwithstanding, all persons, who enter into any of these two orders, must undertake this journey once a year. In order to this they qualify themselves bv a previous mortification, by virtue whereof they must for some time abstain from lying with their wives, from impure food, and other things, by the use of which they might contract any degree of impurity, though never so small, not forgetting frequently to bath and to wash themselves in cold water. As long as they are upon the Journey, they must live only upon what roots and plants they find on the mountain.

If they return safe home from this hazardous Pilgrimage, they repair forthwith, each to the general of his order, who resides at Miaco, make him a small present in money, which if poor, they must get by begging, and receive from him a more honourable title and higher dignity, which occasions some alteration in their dress, and encreases the respect that must be shewn them by their brethren of the same order. So far is ambition from being banish'd out of these religious Societies. For thus they rise by degrees, much after the same    [234]    manner, and in the same order as they do in the society of the Blind, of which I shall have occasion to speak in the latter part of this Chapter.

The Religious of this order wear the common habit of Secular Persons, with some additional ornaments, directed by the Statutes of the order, each of which hath a peculiar name and meaning. They are Wakisasi, a Scimeter of Fudo, which they wear stuck in their Girdle on the left side. It is somewhat shorter than a Katanna, and kept in a flat sheath.

Sakkudsio a small staff of the God Dsiso, with a Copperhead, to which are fastened four Rings likewise of Copper. They rattle this staff in their prayers upon uttering certain words.

Foranokai a large shell, which will hold about a pint of water and is wound like a Buccinum, or Trumpet, smooth, white, with beautiful red spots and lines. It is found chiefly about Array in low-water. It hangs down from their Girdle, and serves them in the nature of a Trumpet, having for this purpose a tube fastend to the end, through which they blow upon approach of Travellers to beg their Charity. It sounds not unlike a Cowherds-horn.

Dsusukake, a twisted band or scarf, with Fringes at the end. They wear it about their neck. By the length of this Scarf, as also by the shape and size of the fringes, it is known, what titles and dignities they have been raised to by their Superiors.

Foki, a Cap, or Head dress, which they wear on their forehead. It is peculiar only to some few among them.

Oji, a bag, wherein they keep a Book, some Money, and cloth. They carry it upon their back.

Jatzuwono warandzie, are their shoes, or sandals, which are twisted of straw, and the stalks of the Tarate flower, which plant is in a peculiar repute of Holiness among them. They wear them chiefly in their penitential Pilgrimages to the tops of the two holy Mountains abovementioned.

Iza Taka no Dsiusu, is their Rosary, or string of Beads, by which they say their prayers. It is made of rough Balls. The invention and use of it are of a later date, than the institution of the order, accordingly there is no mention made of it in the statutes of the same. (These Beads, with some others, see among the ornaments of the Map of Japan.) Kongo Dsuje, a thick strong staff, a very useful Instrument for their Journey to the top of the Mountains afore said.

The most eminent among them have the hair cut off short behind their heads. Others let it grow, and tie it together. Many shave themselves close, as do in particular the Novices upon their   [235]    entring the order, in imitation of the Budsdo Priests, of whom they have borrowed this custom.

These Sintos Hermits are now very much degenerated P from the austerity of their Predecessors, who in imitation of their Founder's Example, and pursuant to the rules laid down by him, lived, from their first entring the order, upon nothing else but plants and roots, and exposed themselves to perpetual and very rude trials and mortifications, fasting, washing themselves in cold water, erring through woods and forests, desart and uninhabited places, and the like. III like manner, they deviated very much from the simplicity of the Religion, they formerly protessed, admitting the worship of such foreign Idols, as are thought by them to have the greatest power and influence over the occurrencies of human life They enlarged their System of divinity, and encreased the number ot superstitious ceremonies. Among other things they betook themselves to a sort of trade, which proves very beneficial to them, and to impose upon the vulgar they give out, that they are peculiarly versed in Magical arts and sciences, pretending by virtue of certain ceremonies and mystical obscure words and charms, to Command all the Gods worship'd in the Country, as well of the Sintoists as those of the Budsdoists, the Worship of whom, was brought over from beyond Sea, to conjure and drive out evil spirits, to do many things the power of Nature, to dive into secrets and mysteries, to recover stolen Goods, and to discover the thieves, to fortel future events, to explain dreams, to cure desperate distempers, to find out the guilt, or innocence, of persons accused of crimes and misdemeanors, and the like.

I flatter myself the Reader will not be displeased to receive some farther Information about their way of proceeding in several of these particulars. To begin with the cure of distempers. The patient is to gtve the Jamm.abos as good an account, as possibly he can, of his distemper and the condition he is in. The Jammabos after a full hearing writes some characters on a bst of paper, which Characters, as he pretends, have a particular relation to the constitution of the patient and the nature of his distemper. This done, he places the paper on an altar before his Idols, performing many superstitious ceremonies, in order, as he gives out, to communicate a healing faculty to it after which he makes it up into pills, whereof the patient is to take one every morning, drinking a large draught of water upon it, which again must be drawn up from the spring or river, not without some mystery, and towards such a corner of the world, the Jammabos directs. These Character pills are called Goof. It must be observed however, that the Jammabos seldom administer, and the Patients still seldomer resolve to undergo this mysterious cure, till they are almost past all hopes of   [236]    recoverv. In less desperate cases recourse is had to more natural remedies.

Their trials of the guilt or innocence of persons accus'd of crimes and misdemeanours, are made in presence of or an Idol, call'd Fudo, sitting amidst fire and flames, not indeed in a judicial and publick way, after the manner of the Brahmines, Siamites, and other Heathens, nor by giving the question, as is often done in Europe, chiefly in cases of witchcraft, but privately in the house, where the fact was committed, and in presence of the domesticks, either by a simple conjuring and uttering certain words, or by fire, or by a draught of Khumano Goo. If the first, a simple conjuration, proves ineffectual, recourse is had to the second, a trial by fire, to be perform d by making the suspected persons walk thrice over a coal-fire, about a fathom long, which if they can do without being burnt on the soles of their feet, they are acquitted. Some are brought to confession by a draught of Khumano Goo Goo is a paper fill'd with characters and pictures of black birds, as Ravens and others, and sealed with the seals of the Jammabos. It is pasted to the doors of houses, to keep off evil spirits, and serves for several other superstitious purposes. It is made indifferently by all Jammabos, but the best come from Khumano, whence the name. A little bit tore off of this paper, must be swallow'd by the accus'd Person, in a draught of water, and it is said, that if he be guilty, it will work and trouble him most cruelly till he confesses. They talk very big of the surprising and wonderful virtues of their charms and conjurations, whereby they pretend, to be able to manage and handle burning coals and red-hot iron, without receiving any the least hurt, suddenly to extinguish fires, to make cold water boiling hot, and hot water ice-cold in an Instant, to keep People's swords and scimiters so fast in the sheath, that no force is able to draw them out, to keep themselves from being hurt by these or other weayons, and to perform many more such uncommon and surprizing things, which, if more nicely examin'd, would he found perhaps to be little else than Juggler's Tricks, and effects of natural causes. They call it Jamassu, which signifiesw Conjuring Strokes. These mighty strokes are nothillg else but certain motions of their hands and fingers whereby they pretend to represent Crocodiles, Tygers, and other monstrous animals, at the same time uttering certain Obscure sounds. By this, and by frequently altering these positions and representations, as also by lifting up and letting tal1 their voice, they endeavour, they say, as with so manv cross-strokes to come within reach of the obgect to be charmed, till at last having remov'd and cut through a obstacles and hindrances they obtain their desired end.

One of their chief and most mysterious Sin, as they sometimes call them, or charms, is, when holding up both hands, and twisting the fingers, as it were, one within another, they represent the Si Tensi O,   [237]    that is the four most powerful Gods of the thirty third and last Heaven. The position, which they put their Fingers in, is thus. They hold up the two middle fingers one against another almost perpendicular, and make the two next fingers, on each side, cross one another in such a manller, that they point towards four different corners of the world, in representation of these four Gods, whom they call Tammonden, Tsigokten, Sosioten, and Kamokten. The two middle fingers, held up as I observ'd, almost perpendicularly, serve them, as they pretend, in the nature of a Spyglass, whereby to spy out the Spirits and distempers, to see the Kitz or Fox, and the Ma, or evil Spirit, lodged in peoples bodies, and to find out precisely, what sort they be of, in order afterwards to square their charms and ceremonious superstitions to the more effectual driving of them out. But this same position of the middle fingers with regard to the rest is to represent besides Fudo mio wo, that is, the holy great Fudo, formerly a Giosia, a mighty devotee of their order, who, among other extraordinary mortifications, sat down daily in the midst of a large Fire, though without receiving any hurt, and by whose powerful assistance they believe, on this account, to be able not only to destroy the burning quality of fire, when they please, but also to make it serve at command to what purposes they think fit. A lamp fill'd with an Oyl made of a certain black venomous water lizard, call'd Inari, is kept continually burning before the Idol of Fudo.

The Jammabos make a mighty secret of these charms and mysterious arts. However, for a handsome reward they will communicate and teach them to other people, though under condition of secrecy. The account, I have given in this Chapter, of this singular order, I had chiefly from a young Japanese well versed in the affairs of his Country, whom during my stay in Japan I taught Physick and Surgery, and who had been one of their Scholars himself. He further told me, that before they would let him into the secret, they made him undergo a very rude Noviciate. And in the first place he was abstain from every thing, that had had life in it, and to subsist only upon rice and herbs for six days together. In the next place they commanded him to wash himself seven times a day in cold water, and kneeling down on the ground, th his buttocks to his heels, and clapping his hands over his head, to lift himself up seven-hundred and fourscore times every day. This last part of his Trial he found also the rudest, for by getting up and down two or three hundred times, he brought himself all into a sweat, and grew so tired and weary, that he was often UpOIl the point to run away from his Masters, but being a young lusty fellow, shame rather than curiosity prevailed upon him to hold it out to the last.    [238]    

Thus much of the Jammabos. There are still many more rellgious orders and societies establish'd in this country, a particular account of which would swell this Chapter to an unbecoming length. The superstitious veneration of the vulgar for their Ecclesiasticks, the ease and pleasures of a religious life, great as they are, 'tis no wonder, that the number of costly temples, rich monasteries and convents, where under the cloak of retlrement, and divine worship, the Monks give themselves up to an uninterrupted pursuit of wantonness and luxury, is grown to an excess scarce credible. But there are also some particular societies, not purely Ecclesiasticals nor confin'd to the Clergy alone, but rather of a mix'd nature, with an allay of secularity. Out of many that of the blind is not unworthy of Consideration, a singular, but very ancient and numerous body, compos'd of Persons of all ranks and professions. Originally they made up but one society, but in process ot time they split into two separate bodies, one of which is called, Feekisado, or the Blind Feekis, the other, Bussetz Sato, or the Blind Bussetz. It will not be amiss to enquire into the origin and constitutions of both. The Bussetz Sato must be consider'd first, as being of a more antient standing. At present this society is compos'd only of Ecclesiastical persons, whose rules and customs are not very different from those of the Jammabos. Their Founder was Senmimar, the Emperor Jengino Mikaddo his third (and according to some authors his fourth) Son, and the occasion of their institution is recorded in Japanese Histories to have been as follows. Senmimar was a youth of incomparable beauty, and exceedingly belov'd by all that came near him. It happen'd that a Princess of the Imperial Blood fell desperately in love with him Her beauty and virtues prov'd charms as unresistable to the young Prince, as his graceful Person and princely qualities had been to her. For some time the happy lovers enjoy'd all the satisfaction and mutual returns of passion and friendship, when the death of the Princess intervening Senmimar took it so much to heart, that not long after thro' grief and sorrow he lost his sight. Upon this, to perpetuate the memory of his dearly beloved, and to make known to posterity, what an unfortunate effect his unfeign'd concern and sorrow for her loss had himself, he resolv'd, with his father's leave, and under his Imperial Charter, to erect a society, whereinto none should be admitted, but such as had the misfortune to be blind by birth or accident. His design was put in execution accordingly. The new erected society prosper'd exceedingly, and flourish'd, and got into great repute at Court, and in the Empire. For some Centuries they continu'd united in one body, till a new the society ot the Feki Blind, as they are now call'd, up, which in a short time got so far the better of the former, many great men in the Empire, who were blind, voluntarily entering into it, that by degrees they lost much of their   [239]    reputation, and were reduc'd very low in number, none being left at last but ecclesiastical Persons, to whom it remains now confin'd. Ever since their first institution, the Feki Blind continu'd in an uninterrupted possession ot all the esteem and authority, the Bussetz had once enjoy'd. Nay, being still more numerous) they are also much more consider'd in proportion. They owe their origin to the civil wars between the Feki's and Gendzi's, both contending for the Empire. Whole Volumes have been wrote of the long and bloody dissentions between these two once considerable and powerful parties, and the manifold calamities which thence hefel the Empire. The cause of Feki and his adherents, appearing more just to the then reigning Dairi, than that of Gendzi, he thought himself bound in conscience to support it, which he did so effectually, that Gendzi, and his party were defeated and almost totally destroy'd. The victorious Feki, as success is often follow'd by pride and ambition, soon forgot the obligations he lay under to the Dairi, and behav'd himself with so much insolence and ungratefulness towards him, that he resolv'd to espouse the interest, tho' almost totally sunk, of Gendzi and his adherents, promising all manner of encouragement and assistance, if they would once more gather all their strength together, and take up arms against Feki and his Party. Affairs upon this soon took another turn, victory in a decisive battle favour'd the Gendzi's; Feki himself was slain near Simonoseki, and his whole army defeated, but few escaping. Amongst those who escap'd with their lives, was Kakekigo, a General very much renowned for his valour and supernatural strength, which 'twas believ'd he obtain'd from Quanwon, as a reward for his constant evotion to that God. This General fled in a small boat. Joritomo) General of the Gendzi's, and himself a very resolute Soldier, knew of what consequence it was to secure the person of Kakekigo, and till then thinking his victory incomplete, he caus'd him to be pursued and taken. However, when he was brought before him, he treated him kindly, and with all the respect due to a Person of his rank and character, withall confining him so little, that Kakekigo found means several times to make his escape, but was as often retaken. The generous Joritomo had no thoughts of putting him to death, tho' his Enemy and his Prisoner. Nay, far from it, he put such a value upon the friendship and affection of a Person of his note, as to think it worth his while to purchase it at any price. One day when he was pressing him very close to enter into his service, upon whatever terms he pleas'd, the captive General return'd him the following resolute answer. I was once, said he, a faithful Servant to a kind master. Now he is dead, no other shall boast of my faith and friendship. I own, that you have laid me under great obligations. I owe even my life to your Clemency. And yet such is my misfortune, that I cannot set my Eyes on you, but with a design, in revenge of him and me, to cut off your head.    [240]    These therefore, these designing instruments of mischief I will offer to you, as the only acknowledgment for your generous behaviour towards me, my unhappy condition will allow me to give you. This said, he plucks out both his Eyes, and on a plate, presents them to Joritomo, undaunted like that bold Roman, who in sight of Porsenna, burnt his right hand on the altar. Joritomo astonish'd at so much magnanimity and resolution, forthwith set the captive General at liberty, who thereupon retired into the Province Fiuga, where he learnt to play upon the Bywa, a particuiar musical instrument used in Japan, and give birth to this Society of the Feki blind, of which he himself was the first Kengio, or Head. This is the account, Japanese Histories give of the original institution of this Society, which is since grown very numerous, being composed of persons of all ranks and professions. They shave their heads, as do also the Bussetz sato, or Ecclesiastical blind. Otherwise, being secular persons, they wear also a secular habit, different however from the common dress of the Japanese, and different among themselves according to their rank and dignities. They do not live upon Charity, but make a shift, in their several capacities, to get a livelyhood for themselves, and to provide for the maintenance of their commonwealth, following divers professions not altogether inconsistent with their unhappy condition. Many of them applv themselves to Music, in which capacit) they are employ'd at the Courts of Princes and great men, as also upon publick solemnities, festivals, processions, weddings, and the like. Whoever is once admitted a member of this Society, must remain such for life. They are dispersed up and down the Empire, but their General resides at Miaco, where the Cash of the Company is kept. He is call'd Osiok, and hath 4300 Thails a year allow'd him for his maintenance by the Dairi. He governs the commonwealth, being assisted by ten Counsellors call'd Siu Ro, which signifies Elder men, Alder-men, of which he, the General himself is the eldest. They reside at Miaco, and have, jointly with the General, power of life and death, with this restriction however, that no person can be executed, unless the Sentence be approv'd of, and the dead-warrant sign'd by the Lord Chief Justice of Miaco. The Council of ten appoint their inferior officers, who reside in the several Provinces: Some of these are calltd Kengio, as it were, Father Provincials, being each in his Province, what the General is with regard to the whole Society. The founder himself took only the title of Ken Gio. But the society being in process of time grown very numerous, 'twas thought necessary to alter the government, and to appoint a Court superior to the Kengios. Every Kengio hath his Kotos, as they are call'd, to assist and advise him. The Kotos sometimes govern particular districts by themselves. At Nagasaki there is a Kengio and two Koto's, under whose command stand all the Blind of that Town, and adjacent Country. The Kengio's and Koto's have many other inferior   [241]    officers subordinate to them, who are call'd Sijbun, and are again subordinate to one another. They differ from the common body of the blind, by svearing long breeches. As they have different ranks and tltles among themselves, so they are oblig'd every five years to purchase a new Quan, that is, a new and higher title from their Kengio, for 20 to 50 Thails. If they neglect, or are not able to do it, they are remov'd to a lower rank. The main body of the Blind are comprehended under one general narne of Mukwan. These wear no breeches, and are divided into four Quans, ranks, or classes. Those of the fourth and last class, are capable of being made Sijbuns, from which office they gradually rise to the dignity of Koto, Kengio, and so on. Sometimes, thro' money or favour they rise very suddenly.



Chap. VI. Of the Budsdo, or Foreign Pagan Worship, and its Founder.

Foreign Idols, for distinction's sake from the Kami, or Sin, which were worshipp'd in the country in the most ancient times, are call'd Budsd and Fotoke. The Characters also, whereby these two words are express'd, differ from those of Sin and Cami. Budsdo, in the litteral sense signifies the way of Foreign Idols, that is, the way of worshipping Foreign Idols. The origine of this religion, which quickly spread thro' most Asiatick Countries to the very extremities of the East, (not unlike the Indian Fig-tree, which propogates itself, and spreads far round, by sending down new roots from the extremities of its branches,) must be look'd for among the Brahmines. I have strong reasons to believe, both from the affinity of the name, and the very nature of this religion, that its author and founder is the very same person, whom the Brahmines call Budha, and believe to be an essential part of Wisthnu, or their Deity, who made its ninth appearance in the world under this name, and in the shape of this Man. The Chinese and Japanese call him Buds and Siaka. These two names indeed became in success of time a common Epithet of all Gods and Idols in general, the worship of whom was brought over from other Countries: sometimes also they were given to the Saints and great men, who preach'd these new doctrines. The common people in Siam, call him Prah l'udi Dsau, that is, the Holy Lord, and the learned among them, in their Pali or holy language, Sammona Khodum The Peguans call him Sammana Khutama. (See Book I. Ch. II.)    [242]    His native country, according to the Japanese (with ] regard to whom he is chiefly consider'd in this place) is Maaattakokf, or the Province Magatta in the Country Tensik. Tensik, in the litteral sense, signifies a Heavenly Country, a Country of Heavens. The Japanese comprehend under this name the Island of Ceylan, the Coasts of Malabar and Cormandel, and in general all the Countries of South Asia, the continent as well as the neighbouring Islands, which are inhabited by Blacks, such as the Peninsula of Malacca, the Islands of Sumatra, Java, the Kingdoms of Siam, Pegu, &c.

He was born in the twenty-sixth year of the reign s of the Chinese Emperor Soowo, who was fourth Successor of the famous Suno Buo, on the eighth day of the fourth month. This was according to some the year before our Saviour's Nativity 1029, and according to others 1027; when I was in Siam, in 1690, the Siamites then told 2232 years from their Budha, who, if he be the same with the Siaka of the Japanese, his birth comes Up no higher than 542 years before Christ. His father was King of Magattakokf, a powerful Kingdom in the Country Tensikf. I conjecture this to be the Island of Ceylon The Kingdom of Siam indeed is so call'd to this day by the common People in Japan.

Siaka, when he came to be nineteen years of age, quitted his Palace, leaving his wife and an only son behind him, and voluntarily, of his own choice, became a disciple of Arara Sennin, then a Hermit of great repute who liv'd at the top of a mountain call'd Dandokf. Under the inspection of this holy man he betook hime to a very austere life, wholly taken up with an almost unillterrupted contemplation of heavenly and divine things, in a posture very singular in itself, but reckon'd very proper for this sublime way of thinking, to wit, sitting cross-legg'd, with his hands in the bosom placed so, that the extremities of both thumbs touch'd one another: A posture, which is thought to engage one's mind into so profound a meditation, and to wrap it up so entirely within itself, that the body lies for a while as it were senseless, unattentive, and unmoved by any external objects whatsoever. This profound Enthusiasm is by them call'd Safen, and the divine truths revealed to such persons Satori. As to Siaka himself, the force of his Enthusiasm was so great, that by its means he penetrated into the most secret and important points of religion, discovering the existence and state of Heaven and Hell, as places of reward and punishment, the state of our Souls in a life to come, the transmigration thereof, the way to eternal happiness, the divine Power of the Gods in the government of this world, and many more things beyond the reach of humane understanding, which he afterwards freely communicated to the numerous crowds of his disciples, who for the sake of his doctrine and instructions follow'd him in   [243]    flocks, embracing the same austere way of life, which he led himself.

He liv'd seventy-nine years, and died on thefifteenth day of the second month, in the year before Christ 950.

The most essential points of his doctrine are as follows.

The souls of men and animals are immortal: Both are of the same substance, and differ only according to the different objects they are placed in, whether human or animal.

The souls of men after their departure from their bodies, are rewarded in a place of happiness, or misery, according to their behaviour in this life.

The place of happiness is call'd Gokurakf, that is, a place of eternal pleasures. As the Gods differ in their natures and the Souls of men in the merit of their past actions, so do likewise the degrees of pleasure and happiness in their Elysian Fields, that every one may be rewarded as he deserves However the whole place is so throughly fill d with bliss and pleasure, that each happy inhabitant thinks his portion the best, and far from envying the happier state of others, wishes only for ever to enjoy his own.

Amida is the sovereign Commander of these heavenly Stations, (for all his doctrine hath not been introduc'd by the Brahmines, till after our Saviour's glorious resurrection.) He is look'd upon as the general Patron and Protector of human Souls, but more particularly as the God and Father of those, who happily transmigrate into these places of bliss. Through his, and his sole mediation, Men are to obtain absolution from their sins, and a portion of happiness in the future Life.

Leading a virtuous Life, and doing nothing that is contrary to the Commandments of the Law of Siaka, is the only way to become agreeable unto Amida, and worthy of eternal happiness.

The five Commandments of the Doctrine of Siaka, which are the standing rule of the life and behaviour of all his faithful adherents, are call'd Gokai, which implies as much, as the five Cautions, or Warnings. They are, Se Seo, the Law not to kill any thing that hath Life in it.

Tsu To, the Law not to steal.

Sijain, the Law not to whore.

Mago, the Law not to lie.

Onsiu, the Law not to drink strong Liquors; a Law which Siaka most earnestly recommended to his Disciples, to be by them strictly observ'd.

Next to these five chief and general Commandments, which contain in substance the whole Law of Siaka, follow ten Sikkai, as they call them, that is Counsels, or Admonitions, being nothing else but the five first Laws branch'd out, and applied to more particular actions,    [244]    and tending to a stricter observance of Virtue. For the sake of the learned, and such as aim at a more than ordinary state of Virtue and Perfection even in this World, a still further subdivision hath been contriv'd into Go Fiakkai, that is, five hundred Counsels and Admonitions, wherein are specified, and determin'd with the utmost exactness and particularity, whatever actions have, according to their notions, the least tendency to virtue and vice, and ought on this account to be done or omitted.

The number of these Gosiakkai being so very extensive, 'tis nol wonder, that those, who will oblige themselves to a strict observance thereof, are as few in proportion, the rather since they tend to such a thorough mortification of their bodies, as to measure and prescribe the very minutest parts of their diet, allowing scarce so much as is necessary to keep them from starving. Nothing but the ambition of acquiring a great repute of Perfection and Sanctity in this World, and the desire of being rais'd to a more eminent station of happiness in the next, can prompt any body to undergo such a rude and severe discipline, as is prescribed by the Go Fiakkai, and few there are, even among the best part of their Clergy, who, for the sake of a greater portion of happiness in a future World, would willingly renounce the very least pleasures of this.

All Persons, Secular or Ecclesiastical, who by their sinful Life and vitious Actions have rendered themselves unworthy of the pleasures prepar'd for the virtuous, are sent after their death to a place of misery, call'd Dsigokf, there to be confined and tormented, not indeed for ever, but only during a certain undetermined time. As the pleasures of the Elysian Fields differ in degrees, so do likewise the torments in these infernal places. Justice requires that every one should be punished, according to the nature and number of 'nis crimes, the number ofyears he lived in the world, the station he lived in, and the opportunities he had to be virtuous, and good. Jemma, or with a more majestuous Character Jemma O, (by which same name he is known also to the Brahmines, Siamites, and Chinese,) is the severe Judge and sovereign commander of this place of darkness and misery. All the vitious actions of mankind appear to him in all their horror and heinousness, by the means of a large looking-glass) placed before him and called, Ssofarino Kagami or the looking-glass of knowledge. The miseries of the poor unhappy Souls confined to these prisons of darkness are not so considerable and lasting, but that great relief may be expected from the virtuous life and good actions of their family, Friends and relations, whom they left behind. But nothing is so conducive to this desirable end, as the prayers and offerings of the Priests to the great and good Amida, who by his powerful intercession can prevail so far upon the almost inexorable Judge of this infernal place, as to oblige him to remit from the severity of his   [245]    Sentence, to treat the unhappy imprison'd Souls with kindness, at least so far, as it is not inconsistent with his Justice and the punishment their crimes deserve, and last of all, to send them abroad into the world again assoon as possible.

When the miserable Souls have been confined in these prisons of darkness a time sufficient to expiate their Crimes, they are, by virtue of the Sentence of Jemma O, sent back into the world, to animate, not indeed the bodies of men, but of such vile creatures, whose nature and properties are nearly related to their former sinful Inclillations, such as for instance, Serpents, Toads, Insects, Birds, Fishes, Quadrupeds and the like. From the vilest of these, transmigrating by degrees into others and nobler, thes at last are suffered again to enter human Bodies, bv which means it is put in their power, either by a good alld virtuous life to render themselves worthy of a future uninterrupted state of happiness, or by a new course of vices to expose themselves once more to undergo all the miseries of confinement in a place of torment, succeeded by a new unhappy transmigration.

Thus far the most essential points of the doctrine of Siaka.

Among the disciples of Siaka arose several eminent men, who contributed greatly to the propagation of his doctrhle, and were succeeded by others equally learned and zealous, insomuch, that we need not wonder, that iliS religion within a very short compass of time spread to the verv extremities of the East, even all the difficulties, they had to struggle with, notwithstanding. The most eminent of his disciples were Annan and Kasia, or with their full titles Annan Sonsja, and Kasia Sonsja. They collected his wise sentences, and what was found after his death, written with his own hands on the leaves of trees, into a book, which for its peculiar excellency is call'd Fokekio, that is, the Book of fine Flowers (in comparison with the holy Tarate-Flower) and sometimes also by way of pre-eminence Kio, the Book, as being the most perfect performance in its kind, and the Bible of all Eastern Nations beyond the Ganges, who embraced Siaka's doctrine. The two compilers of it, for their care and pains, were related among the Saints, and are now worshipp'd jointly with Siaka, in whose Temples, and upon whose altars, they are placed, one to his right, the other to his left hand.

Before the doctrine of Siaka was brought over into China, and from thence through Corsea into Japan, the old Sintos or Cami Worship, mean and simple as it was, was yet the only one flourishing in this Empire. They had but few Temples and few Holidays, and the yearly Pilgrimage to the Temple of Tensio Dai Sin at Isje, was thought the best and surest way to happiness. 'Tis true, in success of time, the number of Gods and Saints encreased, their System of Divinity was embellish'dwith new fables, arts also and sciences were improv'd,   [246]    chiefly since the time of Synmu Ten O their first Monarch. But still a certain simplicity prevail'd, and people following the dictates of reason, aim'd at nothing so much as to live morally well. The Chinese also, before that time followd the illustrious examples and moral precepts of their two great Emperors Tee Gio, that is the Emperor Gio, who according to their Chronological Computation liv'd 2359 years before Christ, and his successor Tee Siun, or the Emperor Siun, who though a PeasalltX was yet for his prudence and honesty made by Gio, first his co-partner in the government, and afterwards his successor, tho' in prejudice to his, Gio's, twelve children, viz. ten sons and two daughters. These two illustrious Princes were the two first Sesins. Sesin is a Philosopher, able to find out truth and wisdom, meerly by the force of his own understanding, and without being taught by others. By mistake, this same name hath been sometimes given to some of their most eminent Divines. Some hundred years after the reign of these Princes, the Pagan Doctrine of Roos arose in China. This man was born in Sokokf, that is, the Province So, on the fourth i day of the ninth month, 346 years after the death of Siaka, or 604 before our Saviour's Nativity. They say, that his mother had been big with child 81 years, for which reason, when she was brought to bed, they calltd him Roos, which implies as much as Old Son, or Old Child. They further add, that the Soul of Kassobosatz, or the holy Kasso, the eldest disciple of Siaka, by transmlgration dwelt in him, which made it easy to him to attain to such a high pitch of knowledge about the nature of Gods and Spirits, the Immortality of our Souls, a future State, and such other important Points, as are hlghly conducive to the instruction of such, as are desirous of learning, and fill the credulous vulgar with admiration. He liv'd eighty-four years. Mean while the Doctrine and Philosophy of Roos got ground in China, another incomparable Sesin appear'd tlpon the Philosophical Stage of that Empire. This was Koosi, or as we Europeans call him Confutius, born in the Province Kok, on the fourth day of the eleventh month) 399 years after the death of Siaka, and 53 after the birth of Roosi, who was then as yet alive. His birth was in a manner miraculous, attended with llO obscure signs of a future Sesin. He had some natural marks on his head, like those of the Emperor (;io, and his forehead was of the same shape with that of the Emperor Siun. At the time of his birth a Music was heard in Heaven, and two Dragons were observ'd to attend, when the Child was wash'd. His Stature, when grown up, was very noble and majestuous, of nine Saku, and nine Suns, proportionable to the greatness of his Genius. Passing over in silence, what is fabulous and romantick, in the History of his Life, it cannot be denied but that he had an incomparable understanding and excellent Sense, and was perhaps the greatest Philosopher   [247]    the East ever produc'd. His Writings and Philosophy maintain'd a constant uninterrupted reputation for now upwards of two hundred years, and are thought in China to have been brought down from Heaven, as was formerly the Philosophy of Socrates in Greece. A profound respect is shewn to his memory both in China and Japan, by publick as well as private Persons. Very lately the Emperor of Japan caus'd two Temples to be built to him in his Capital Jedo, whither he repair'd in Person, as soon as they were finish'd, and on this occasion set forth, in a handsome Speech to his Courtiers, the merits of this great Man, and the peculiar excellency of the maxims of (;overnment laid down by him. His Picture is allow'd the most honourable Place in the Houses of Philosophers, and all Persons who apply themselves to studies and learning, never mention his name without particular tokens of respect. It is no wonder then, that the chimerical, and in several particulars incomprehensible doctrine of Roosi was not able to stand its ground against the reasonable and pleasing moral of Confutius, but was, as it were, smother'd in its Infancy, and insensibly decreased, in proportion as the adherenes of Confutius increas'd, of whom there was a concourse from all parts of the Empire almost beyond imagination. He died in the seventy third year of his age, leaving behind him many able Men, who propagated his Doctrine and Philosophy, not only by their teaching it to others, but gather'd all his wise Sentences and moral Maxims, xvhich he communicated to them in his Life-time, into a Book, which is call d Siudo, that is, the Philosophical way of Life, or the way of Life agreeable to Philosophy, which ever since, for now upwards of two thousand years hath been look'd upon as a performance incomparable in its kind, and an excellent Pattern of a good and virtuous Life; a Book extoll'd not only by the admirers of Confutius, but admir'd for its Morals and political Maxims, even by the adherents of the Budsdo and other Religions, in the very same manner, as the Writings of the ancient Greek and Roman Philosophers, which have escap'd the common shipwreck of time, deservedly stand the admiration of all Europe, and a lasting Monument of the excellent Genius of their great Authors.

Whilst thus the Doctrine and pleasing Philosophy oi Confutius began to flourish in China, and to spread to the neighbouring Empire of Japan, the Doctrine and lleligion of Siaka, which had then already penetrated the kingdoms of Siam and Laos, was not like to meet with a favourable reception in this furthermost part of the East. If we believe the Japanese Historians, the first that taught this Religion in China, came over thither about the year of Christ sixty three, and obtain'd leave to build a Temple, which is still call'd Fakubasi, that is, the Temple of the white Horse, because the Kio, or holy Book of Siaka, was brought over on a white Horse. The greatest difficulty, the Preachers of this new Doctrine had to struggle withal, was the   [248]    Philosophy of Confutius, then shining in its full lustre, and universally approv'd. And indeed it appears that for several hulldred years the Religion of Siaka made a very slow and insignificant Progress, till about the year of Christ 518, one Darma, a great Saint, and thirty third Successor on the holy See of Siaka, came over into China from Seitensiku, as the Japanese Writers explain it, (that is from that part of the World which lies Westward with regard to Japan) and laid properly speaking the first sure Foundations of the Budsdoism in that mighty Empire. The fame of his Dignity and Holiness, the austerity of his Life, his ardent uninterrupted Devotion, which was so strong, that he did not scruple in the height of his zeal, to cut off his own Eyelids, because they had once drawn him out of his Enthusiastic meditations into a sleep, soon brought a crowd of admirers about him. But the most effectual and most persuasive arguments, he made use of to induce people to the worship of the Gods, were the doctrine of the Immortality of our Souls, and the promises of a reward in a future Life, which they should not fail to obtain, if they would but worshipthem, as his Doctrine, Religion and Example should direct. This new Worship having once got ground in China, soon spread into Fakkusai, (which was then the name given to the Peninsula of Corsea, and is now that of one of its three Provinces) where the first Budz, or Idol of Siaka was erected and worship'd in the year of Christ 543. Japan, whose Inhabitants were then divided between the old Religion of the Country, and the philosophical doctrines communicated to them from China, could now hold out no longer, but soon admitted the Religion of Siaka, following in that, as they had done in many other things, the example of the neighbouring Countries. The first Bukkio was brought over into Japan, about the year of Christ 550. About 18 years after, according to Japanese Writers, a curious carv'd Idol of Amida, which had been some years before brought over from Tensiku into Fakusai, appear'd in a miraculous manner, in the Province Tsino Cami, all surrounded with sparkling rays, upon which a Temple was built in Sinano, in memory of this remarkable event, which was call'd Sanquosi, and is still the chief and largest Temple of that Province. About that time Kimmei ruled over Japan, who was no Enemy to this Religion, and conniv'd at its introduction and spreading. This was the same Emperor, who divided the tirne into Nengo's, in imitation of the Chinese. The Nengo then subsisting, when this Temple was built, was call'd Cengo.   [249]     


Chap. VII. Of the Siuto, that is, the Doctrine and Way of Life of their Moralists and Philosophers.

   Siuto, in the litteral sense, signifies the way or method of the Philosophers. Siudosja, or in the plural number, Siudosju, are the Philosophers, who follow this method. These people have, properly speaking, no religion at all, that is, they conform themselves to none of those forms of worshipping the Gods, which are establish'd in the Country. They say, that the greatest perfection and the supreme good, men are able to acquire, consist in that pleasure and delight, which our minds find in a good and virtuous life. They admit of none but temporal rewards, or punishments, and only such, as are the necessary consequences of the practice of virtue or vice. They say, that we are oblig'd to be virtuous, because nature hath endow'd us with reason, on purpose, that living according to the dictates of reason, we should shew our difference, and superiority over irrational brutes. Koosi, or Confutius, born in China 2243 years ago, computing from the 5th year of Genrokf, (of Christ 1692) was the first who taught that the supreme good consists in the practice of virtue, and must consequently be looked upon as the founder of this Philosophical Sect. It hath been observid above, how prejudicial the Sioogakt; or the Book wherein are contain'd his precepts and morals proved to the then flourishing doctrine of Roosi. Moosi, one of Confutius's disciples, was very instrumental in establishing and propagating this Philosophy, which he publish'd in Sisio, or four Books, which are still held in great esteem, and read in all Countries, where the learned language, wherein they were written, is understood.

This Philosophy, so far as it relates to the practice of virtue and good morals, may be reduced to the following five points, which they call Dsin, Gi, Re, Tsi and Sin. Dsin, teaches them to live virtuously; (hence Dsinsja, a virtuous man,) Gi, to do right and justice to every body; Re, to be civil and polite; Tsi sets forth the maxims of a good and prudent Government, and Sin treats of a free conscience and uprightness of heart. They admit no transmigration of Souls, but believe an Snimam mundi, an universal Soul, Spirit or power, diffused throughout the whole world, which animates all things, which re-assumes the departing Souls, (as the Sea doth all rivers and waters that flow into it from all parts of the Globe) as   [250]    into a common receptacle, and lets them, as it were, flow out again indifferently to animate other creatures. This universal spirit they confound with the supreme Being, attributing to one the same divine qualities, which only belong to the other. They often make use of the word Ten, Heaven or Nature, in things, which more immediately concern our life and actions. Thus they thank heaven and nature for their victuals, and the necessaries of life. Some among them, whom I conversed withal, admitted an intellectual, or incorporeal being, but only as governor and director, not as the author of nature, nay, they pretended, that it is an effect of nature produced by In and Jo, heaven and carth, one active, the other passive, one the principle of generation, the other of corruption: after the same manner also they explained some other active powers of nature to be spiritual beings. They make the world eternal and suppose men and animals to have been produced by In Jo, the heaven and five terrestrial elements. Admitting no Gods, they have no temples, no forms of worship. Thus far however they conform themselves to the general custom of the Country, in that they celebrate the memory of their deceased parents and relations, which is done by putting all sorts of victuals, raw and dressed, on a Biosju, as they call it, or table purposely made with this view, by burning candles before them, by bowing down to the ground as if they were yet alive, by monthly or anniversary dinners, whereto are invited the deceased's family and friends) who appear all in the best cloth, and wash and clean themselves by way of preparation for three days before, during which time they abstain from lying with their wives) and from all impure things, and by many other tokens of respect and gratitude. As to the burial ot their dead, they do not burn them, but keep the corpse three days, and then lay it on the back into a coffin, after the European manner, with the head raised. Sometimes the coffin is filled with spices and sweet scented herbs, to preserve the body from corruption, and when every thing is ready, they accompany it to the grave, and bury it without any further ceremony.

These Philosophers do not only admit of selfmurther, but look upon it as an heroic and highly commendable action, and the only honourable means to avoid a shameful death, or to prevent falling into the hands of a victorious enemy.

They celebrate no festivals, nor will they pay any respect to the Gods of the Country, any more than common civility and good manners require. The practice of virtue, a free conscience, and a good and honest life, is all what they aim at. They were even suspected of secretly favouring the Christian religion, for which reason, after the said Religion had been entirely abolished by cross and fire, and proper means taleen to prevent its ever reviving again, they also were   [251]    commanded to have, each the Idol, or at least the name, of one of the Gods worship'd in the country, put up in their houses, in a conspicuous and honourable place, with a flower pot, and Incensory before them. They commonly chuse Quanwon, or Amida, whose Idols they place behind the hearth, according to the Country fashion. Some have besides, of their own free choice, the Biosiu in their houses, or else the name of some learned man. In their publick Schools is hung up the picture of Koosi or Confutius. Formerly this sect was very numerous. Arts and Sciences were cultivated and improved among them, and the best part of the nation profess'd it. But that unparallel'd persecution of the Christian Religion, weaken'd it very much, and it lost ground ever since; the extream rigour of the imperial Edicts make people cautious even as to reading their books, which formerly have been the delight and admiration of the nation, held in as great an esteem as the writings of Plato, Socrates, and other heathen Philosophers are in Europe .

About thirty years ago, the Prince of Sisen and Inaba, a great Siudosia, and Patron of learned- men, endeavour'd to revive this Philosophy, then almost extinct, in his dominiolls In order to this, he founded an university, endowed lt with great privileges, and settled handsome pensions upon able learned men, whom he sent for from all parts of the Empire. The design of this undertaking was to open the Eyes of his Subjects, and to teach them, if possible, to make use of their reason, which they no sooner did, but they began to see thro' the impertinent and ridiculous Fables of their priests, and discovering their cheats refused to grant them any further subsistance, whereby this numerous crew, which till then lived only upon the charity of credulous people, was reduced to a starving condition. Of so dangerous an innovation heavy complaints were made to both Emperors, and the unhappy Prince was like to fall a sacrifice to his good intentions, had he not, by a voluntary resignation of his dominions to his Son, prevented the fatal blow of the Imperial disgrace ready to fall upon him and his family. His Son, though of a more prudent and reserv'd behaviour, yet by his life and conduct leaves no room to doubt, but that his principles are nearly the same with those of his Father's, an instance whereof, though foreign to my present purpose, will not be improper to close this Chapter and Book.

On the Songuats, or New-years-day, one of their greatest Festivals, there was a numerous appearance at Court of gentlemen and ladies, who came thither in their richest apparel, to compliment the Prince on the occasion of the day, and were by him entertain'd at dinner. Amongst other presents made to him that day, there happen'd to be a Peacock and Hen. Every one was delighted, and struck with admiration, by the uncommon beauty of these scarce, foreign Birds, whence the Prince took occasion to ask their opinion, which of the   [252]    two they thought was the cock, and which the hen. The gentlemen out of civility to the ladies, unanimously pitch'd upon the most beautiful to be the hen; the ladies on the contrary very modestly apprehended, that the finest of the two was the cock. You are in the right, answer'd thereupon the Prince; Nature itself will have the man best clad, and it seems to me incomprehensible, that the wife should have more pride, and go richer dress'd than her husband, who must be at the expence of maintaining her. An excellent New-year's Sermon from a Heathen Prince.   [253]

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